Kwarewa a Fannin Gyara Wayar Salula (Mobile Phone Repairs)

Makon da Ya Gabata

A makon da ya gabata masu karatu sun samu bayanai ne kan kwarewa a fannin da ya shafi gyarawa da kuma kanikancin na’urar kwamfuta, wato Computer Repairs and Maintenance kenan, a Turance.  A yau kuma in Allah Ya yarda, za mu ci gaba da wannan silsila, inda za mu tabo fannin gyarawa da kuma kanikancin wayar salula, wato Mobile Phone Repairs and Maintenance.  A wancan mako in masu karatu basu mance ba, nayi alkawarin kawo bayani ne kan kwarewa a fannin ginawa da kuma tsara manhajar kwamfuta, wato Computer Programming, sai daga baya na ga dacewan ajiye wannan fannin zuwa karshe, don wasu dalilai da sai lokacin ya zo zan sanar, in Allah Ya yarda.

 

To a yau dai, kamar yadda na fara fada, za mu ji bayanai ne kan fannin gyara wayar salula ko tafi-da-gidanka, wato Mobile Phones kenan; mai karatu zai samu takaitaccen bayani kan tsarin da aka gina wayar salula irin ta zamani, da yadda tsarin amfani da ita yake a yanzu, da kuma hanyoyin da za a bi wajen kwarewa a wannan fanni, kafin a karshe mu ji irin aikace-aikacen da ke jiran kwararre a fannin gyarawa da kuma lura da wayar salula ta zamani.

Fannin “Mobile Phone Repairs and Maintenance”

Fannin “Mobile Phone Repairs and Maintenance”, shi ne fannin da ya shafi gyarawa da kuma lura da lafiyar wayar tafi-da-gidanka, ko kuma wayar salula, kamar yadda muka saba fada da Hausa.  Wannan fanni yana da irin muhimmancin da gyarawa da lura da na’urar kwamfuta ke dashi, kamar yadda bayani ya gabata makonni biyu da suka wuce.  A kasashe irin namu, wannan ba wani fanni bane da za ka je makarantun gwamnati ka koya, sam.  Abin da ya habbaka wannan fanni shi ne yaduwar wayoyin salula a hannun jama’a, musamman a wannan zamani da muke ciki, wanda wayoyin salula ke dauke da tsarin sadarwa irin ta Global System of Mobile Communications, wato GSM.  Wannan tsari ne ya sawwake yaduwa da saukin mallakan wannan fasahar sadarwa ta wayar tafi-da-gidanka, wato Mobile Phones. 

 

Wayoyin salula sun fara bayyana ne shekaru talatin da suka gabata, kuma a farkon fitowan su, yanayin gininsu na bayar da daman aikawa ne da sakonnin murya kadai, wato Voice Communication.  Wadannan rukuni na wayar salula masu wannan sifa su ake ma take da 1st Generation Phones, ko 1GP, a takaice.  Cikin shekarun 1980s kuma sai tsarin ginin su ya canza, ta kai za ka iya aikawa da sakonnin text.  Kuma wayoyin suka zo da hanyar aikawa da sakonni ta GPRS, wanda muke ta takama dashi a yanzu.

 

Wadannan wayoyi masu wannan sifa ne suka ta cin kasuwar su har zuwa shekarar 1992 ko kasa da haka, kuma su ake ma take da 2nd Generation Phones, ko kuma 2GP, a ramzance.  Da tafiya ta sake ci gaba, sai ga wasu nau’uka da aka sake habbaka yanayi  da tsarin ginin su, masu dauke da fasahar aikawa da sakonnin text, da hanyar sadarwa ta GPRS, da fasahar Bluetooth, da fasahar Infrared, da hanyar aikawa da shigar da bayanai ta Universal Serial Bus, wato USB Port.  Har wa yau, samuwan wadannan fasahohi ne ya sawwake yiwuwar shigar da abubuwa irin su rediyo da bidiyo da kuma na’urar daukan murya (Voice Recorder) da ma sauran karikitai, a cikin wadannan wayoyi na zamani.

 

Wadannan rukuni su ake kira The 3rd Generation Phones, ko kace 3GP, a takaice.  Wadannan rukunai ne ke cin karen su ba babbaka a yanzu, duk da yake an fara kirkiro na gaba da su, wato 4th Generation Phones (4GP), musamman a sauran kasashen turai da Amurka.  Irin wadannan wayoyi sune masu dauke da dukkan siffofin wayoyin da suka gabata, da kuma wasu siffofi masu kayatarwa da aminci, irin su fasahar Tabalijin da kuma hanyoyin shiga cikin kwamfuta daga inda kake a ko ina ne a duniya.  Rukunin wayoyin salula irin su Blackberry, da Nokia Smartphone na cikin wadannan wayoyin zamani.

 

Tsarin Wayoyin Salula na Zamani

Bayan wannan kayatattacen tsari da wadannan wayoyi na salula suke dashi a halin yanzu, zai dace mu san irin tarkibin da aka gina su a kai; ma’ana, mu san irin bangarorin da ke cikin su, sanadiyyar wadannan siffofi da suka mallaka.  Wannan na da muhimmanci ga duk mai gyaran wayar salula.  Wayar salula ta zamani na dauke ne da manyan bangarori guda biyu, kamar dai yadda bayani ya gabata a kasidar Tsarin Sadarwa ta Wayar Salula.  Bangaren farko shi ne gangar-jikin wayar, wato Hardware kenan a turance, wanda ya kumshi bangarori guda hudu muhimmai; ma’adanar wayar, wato Storage, wanda shi ne ke dauke da dukkan bayanan da ake sanya ma wayar salula na lambobin wayar da kake sanyawa, da sakonnin da text da kake karba da wadanda ake adana maka idan ka aika ma wasu, da jakunkunan bayanai na sauti da hotuna masu motsi da marasa motsi. Duk wadannan suna taskance ne cikin ma’adanan ta.

 

Sai kuma masarrafar bayanai, wato Processor, wanda ke sarrafa maka sakonnin da kake aikawa ko karba ko kuma taskancewa; kwakwalwan wayar kenan.  Sai kuma bangaren wutar lantarki, wato Electric Circuit, wanda ke hada kai da batir don baiwa wayar wutar lantarkin da zai taimaka mata gudanar da ayyukan ta.  A karshe kuma, sai bangaren da ke lura da kuma gano siginar rediyo da wayar ke amfani dashi wajen samun yanayin sadarwa (Network) don isar da kira ko sadar da wayar dashi.  Wannan bangare shi ake kira Network IC.  Wadannan su ne muhimmai cikin bangarorin.  Duk da yake akwai wasu bangarori masu alaka da sautin karba ko aikawa (Mouth Piece da Ear Piece), da allon shigar da haruffa (Keypad) da kuma talabijin ko fuskar wayar (Screen), amma wadannan su ne muhimmai.

 

Sai kuma babban bangare na biyu, wato bangaren da ya shafi ruhin wayar gaba daya.  Wannan shi ake kira Sofware, shi kuma ya kasu kashi uku; bangaren farko ya kumshi babban manhajar, wato Operating System, wanda galibin wayoyin salula na zamani ana gina babban manhajan su ne da fasahar gina manhajar kwamfuta mai suna Symbian, da kuma wani nau’in C++.  Wannan tasa ake kiran wannan fasaha da Symbian/C++. 

 

Da wannan dabaran gina manhajan kwamfuta ne ake gina babban manhajar wayar salula ta zamani, kuma wannan babban manhaja ne ke dauke da bangare na biyu cikin bangarorin ruhin wayar salula.  Duk wani manhaja ko masarrafa da kake mu’amala dashi a wayar salula, irin su raskwana (calculator), abin wasan kwamfuta (games), na’urar daukar murya (voice recorder), na’urar daukan hoton majigi (video recorder), manhajar aikawa da sakonni (short message service – sms), hanyar aikawa da karban bayanai (irin su Bluetooth da infrared), duk suna dogaro ne da wannan babban manhaja ko ruhi da aka gina da fasahar Symbian/C++.  Idan babu wannan babban manhaja, ba za a iya shigar dasu cikin wayar ba balle har a iya amfani dasu.

 

Su kuma kananan masarrafar da ake mu’amala dasu, ana gina su ne da dabarun gina manhajan kwamfuta irin su Phyton, da Java, da Maemo, da Qtopia, da Open C, da kuma manhajan gina ruhin kwamfuta na kamfanin Microsoft (Windows Mobile Programming Language), irin su .NET (dot NET) da kuma C# (wato C Sharp, a lafazance).  Bangaren ruhin wayar salula na uku kuma shi ne Subscriber Identification Module, ko kuma katin SIM, kamar yadda muka saba ambato a nan, kuma wannan ruhi na samuwa ne idan aka sanya mata wannan kati, don baka daman gudanar da wasu ayyuka muhimmai.  Wannan ruhi ya ta’allaka ne ga kamfanin sadarwan ka, wato Telecom Operator. 

 

A tsarin wayoyin zamani na yanzu, ko da baka sanya wannan kati ba, za ka iya gudanar da wasu ‘yan ayyuka, amma ba kira ko amsa kira ba, ko aikawa da sakonnin tes.  Wannan ba ya yiwuwa sai da wannan ruhi.  Idan ka samu wayar salula ta zamani, ayyuka ko alaka iri biyu za ka iya yi da ita; wadanda suka shafi kamfanin sadarwa, da kuma wadanda za ka iya gudanarwa ko da kuwa babu kati a cikinta.  Za mu bayar da misali da wayar tafi-da-gidanka ta kamfanin Nokia, don ta fi shahara.

 

Bangare na farko ya kunshi abin daake kira “Network Services”, a turance, wato hanyoyin amfani da waya, wadanda Kamfanin Sadarwa ne ke bayar da su, a kunshe cikin katin SIM.  Idan ka shiga Menu za ka same su.  Wasu daga cikin su sune: Messages (hanyoyin karba da kuma aika gajerun sakonni), Call Register (rajistan lambobi ko sunayen masu bugo waya ko ka buga musu), Settings (Wajen tsara dukkan hanyoyin mu’amala da wayar), Web (hanyar shiga yanar gizo ta duniya, ko Intanet, a takaice), MTN Services ko Magic Plus (hanyoyin samun labarai takaitattu ta hanyar kamfanin waya).  Wadannan a takaice sune hanyoyin da yanayin amfani da su ya danganta ne da kamfanin da kake amfani da katinsu.

 

Bangare na biyu kuma sune hanyoyin da kana iya amfani dasu ba tare da taimakon kamfanin waya sun taimaka ko kuma sun caje ka ba.  Su kuma sun hada da: Contacts (wajen ajiye sunaye da lambobin abokan hulda), Settings (wani bangarenshi, irinsu: themes, tones, display, time and date, my shortcuts, call settings, phone settings, enhancements, configurations, da kuma security), Gallery (wajen adana jakunkunan sauti, hotuna, wakoki, sautin karban kira da sakonni – tones), Media (wajen Radio, da kemara, rekoda da sauransu), Organiser (wajen kalanda, jakar tafi-da-gidanka – wallet – da kuma alarm), da kuma Application (wajen manhajojin lissafi ko raskwana – calculator – manhajan wasan kwamfuta – games – da agogon kididdiga ko kiyasi, wato stop watch/timer).  Bayan mun ji dukkan wannan, sai mu san hanyoyin da mai karatu zai bi wajen kwarewa a wannan fanni.

 

Kwarewa Wajen Gyarawa da Lura da Wayar Salula

Kwarewa a fannin gyarawa da kuma lura da wayar salula na bukatar sanin shahararru cikin matsalolin wannan fasaha mai matukar wuyar sha’ani, wanda kuma yanayin tsarin su mai matukar ban sha’awa da kayatarwa shi ya jawo haka.  Duk na’urar fasahar sadarwan da ke da saukin mu’amala saboda ingancin ta, sai ka samu tana da wuyar sha’ani wajen rikewa, musamman idan ta samu matsala.  Sai kuma aka yi rashin dace, galibin mu bamu da tarbiyya wajen iya bin ka’idojin da kowace na’urar fasahar sadarwa ke zuwa da su.  Shahararru cikin matsalolin wayar salula sun hada da daukewan wuta gaba daya (Power Outage), da daukewan yanayin sadarwa gaba daya (Network Outage), da dogon suma (Hanging) da zazzabi mai zafi sanadiyyar kwayoyin cuta (Virus) da ka iya shigan ta wajen aika mata da sakonni ta hanyar Bluetooth ko Infrared ko ta hanyar GPRS. 

 

Bayan haka, tana kuma da matsalolin da suka shafi gaba da gabobi da gabbai, wato Hardware Problems, wadanda ke samuwa sanadiyyar faduwa ko kuma buguwa da wayar ke yi wani abu. Wannan kan sa a samu matsalar gilashin ko fuskar wayar (Screen) ko kuma karyewan wani bangare na gangar-jiki ko inji ko kuma wani bangaren sa.

 

Kasancewan bamu da wasu makarantu inda ake kwasakwasan da suka shafi gyara wannan fasahar sadarwa, wannan bai hana samun masu gyara ingantattu ba, cikin kwarewa.  Akwai da dama cikin mutane da suka koyo wannan gyara daga wasu kasashe sanadiyyar zama da suka yi a can.  Wasu suka koya wajen su, haka haka dai har abin ya zama wani sana’a mai zaman kan sa.  Galibin biranen kasan nan na dauke ne da masu gyaran wayar salula, don haka kana iya samun wani ka koya wurin sa.  A wasu wurare, sukan yanke adadin watanni, a wasu wurare kuma sai ka iya za ka fice daga makarantar.  Kuma duk da cewa ba a bukatar wata takardar shahadar gama makaranta kafin a shiga ire-iren wadannan makarantu, zai dace mutum na ji da kuma iya rubutu cikin turanci, don zai taimaka ma masa wajen sanin halayyar wayar salula.

 

Idan ka kware, ayyukanka suna da yawa, kuma galibi na bukatar jin turanci, musamman matsalolin da suka shafi ruhin wayar gaba daya. Domin bayan samuwan kayan aiki da suka shafi abubuwan kwance-kwance da daure-daure, kana bukatar injin narkawa da kuma sandarar da wayoyi ko na’urarorin wuta da suka game injin gaba daya; ko dai wajen kwancewa ko cire su, ko kuma wajen makala sabbi ko gyara su.  Idan ka samu Heating Machine, wato na’urar da ke wannan aiki, ka gama.  Har wa yau, kana bukatar na’urar farfado da sumammiyar waya, wato Universal Flasher Software (UFS), wanda ake saya tare da dukkan wayoyin da ake makala ma kwamfuta don samun farfado da wayar salula da ta sume gaba daya.

 

Wannan na’ura kan zo ne da faya-fayan CD da ke dauke da masarrafar da ake iya ganin halin da ruhin ke ciki, wato Software.  Ka ga kenan kana bukatar samun kwamfuta a shago ko ma’aikatarka, don yin wannan.  Idan baka da halin mallaka, kana iya hada kai da wani, ya sayo don ku hada guiwa ko kuma ya zo da kayan aikinsa.  Kai kana sauran gyare-gyare, shi kuma yana lura da wannan bangare kadai.  Wannan aiki na da matukar daraja da kuma kawo kudi, don duk wani mai mu’amala da wayar salula na takama ne da kai.  Abin da zai tabbatar maka da wannan martaba kuwa shi ne ka rike amana wajen alkinta ma masu kawo gyara wayoyin su; ka cika musu alkawari, ka kuma gaya musu gaskiya.  Ba dole bane sai ka iya gyara kowace irin waya aka kawo maka, ba ma zai taba yiwuwa ba.

 

In kuwa haka ne, kada ka karbi abin daka san ya fi karfinka.  Idan kuma ka karba, ka ga ba za ka iya gyarawa ba, duk hikimomin ka sun kare, to lallai ne ka mayar ma mai shi.  Kada ka cire kayan wata wayar ka sanya ma wata, ba tare da amincewa ko sanin mai shi ba.  Idan ka bi wadannan ka’idoji, za ka shahara, ka habbaka, har ka iya gina makaranta don koyar da wasu, ko kuma samun kananan ma’aikata a karkashin ka. In tafiya tayi nisa ma, kana iya rubuta littafai don bayyana tsarin da kowace wayar salula ke rayuwa a kai, tare da bayyana galibin matsalolinta, da abin da ke haddasa su, tare da bayanin hanyoyin magance su.

 

Kammalawa

Wannan fanni na gyarawa da kuma lura da wayar salula na da muhimmanci, kuma a halin yanzu ne yake kan habbaka, sanadiyyar na’ukan wayoyin salula da ke samuwa kusan a kullun.  Duk wanda ya koyi wannan sana’a zai samu jama’a, don a kullun sai an samu masu kawo masa gyara.  Abin da yake bukata kawai shi ne rike amana da kuma cika alkawari da fadin gaskiya.  A mako mai zuwa za mu yi bayani kan fannin Software Engineering, wato fannin dabaru ko fasahan ginawa da kuma lura da manhaja ko masarrafar kwamfuta.  Sai a kasance tare damu.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al'umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: "Kimiyya da Kere-kere," wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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