Makamashin Hasken Rana (Solar Energy)

Taskancewa da Amfani da Makamashin Hasken Rana

Akwai hanyoyi biyu shahararru da mutane ke bi don amfani da makamashin da ke cikin hasken rana da bayaninsa ya gabata.  Mun ce kashi hamsin cikin dari na haske da zafin da ke fitowa daga rana ne kadai ke darsuwa a wannan duniya tamu, saboda samuwar iskar da ke bugawa a sararin samaniya da kuma tafka-tafkan hazo da sukai wa ranar hijabi da wannan duniya.  Wannan kashi hamsin din ne muke amfani da shi, ko dai kai tsaye ko kuma ta wasu hanyoyi dabam.  Idan rana ta fito, mukan amfana da makamashin da ke cikin zafinta ta hanyoyi da dama.  Lokacin tsananin sanyi, zafin rana da ke haskaka gidajenmu daga taga ko kuma zafafa asalin ginin da muke ciki kan taimaka wajen dumama mana gidajenmu da zarar dare yayi.

 

Haka idan muna da karau (tiles) da ke tsakiyar gida ko jikin dakunanmu inda rana ke haskawa tsawon lokaci.  Wannan karau kan taskance makamashin dumin da ke cikin hasken rana, da zarar dare yayi, sai ya dumama muhallin gidan gaba daya.  Haka idan hasken rana ya darkake saman koguna da tekuna ko rafukan da muke amfani dasu, zafin hasken ranar kan barbari saman tekun don motsa sukunin ruwa, inda wata iska mai karfi a saman tekun kan samu nan take.  Wannan iska mai karfi makamashi ce wajen motsa wasu injuna masu karfin bayar da wutar lantarki ko taimakawa wajen ban-ruwa a gonaki ko ma’aikatu, wato Windmill.

 

Bayan haka, idan wannan zafi na hasken rana ya kai matuka can karkashin teku, wasu kasashe kan yi amfani da wasu injuna masu farfela (wato Turbines), wadanda ruwan zafin tekun ke motsa su don samar da wutar lantarki.  Duk wannan na yiwuwa ne sanadiyyar makamashin da ke samuwa daga hasken rana.  Idan muka koma kan tsirrai da ke fitowa daga cikin kasa za mu ga cewa basu da wani abinci sai makamashin hasken rana, wato tsarin da ake kira Photosynthesis.  Wato tsarin yadda ciyayi da tsirrai da dukkan wani shuka ke samun abincinsa daga hasken rana.  Idan wadannan tsirrai suka isa girbi mun san dan Adam ne ke amfanuwa dasu ta hanyoyi da dama.  Sannan, idan suka ratattake suka rube cikin kasa, duk wani nau’in makamashin zasu sake samar wa dan Adam, kamar yadda bayani zai zo nan gaba.  Dukkan wannan na samuwa ne sanadiyyar makamashin hasken rana.  Wannan amfanuwa da muke yi da wannan makamashi muna amfana ne ta wasu abubuwa da makamashin ya damfara dasu, ba kai tsaye ba.

 

Amma a wannan zamani da muke ciki, bincike ya tabbatar da ana iya amfana da makamashin hasken rana kai tsaye, sabanin hanyar farko da ta gabata. (Duk da yake tun zamanin da ma ana amfana da makamashin hasken rana kai tsaye, wajen shanya tuafi ko abinci da dai sauransu). Saboda shaharar wannan hanya ta zamani tasa galibin mutane suka wayi gari da zarar ka ambaci makamashin hasken rana ko Solar Energy a turance, babu abin da suke kawowa cikin zuciyarsu illa wannan sabon tsari na zamani.  Wannan tsari shi ne taskance makamashin da ke cikin hasken rana kai tsaye, tare da amfana da makamashin a halin da ake taskance shi.  Wannan sabon tsari na taskancewa da kuma amfani da makamashin hasken rana ya kasu kashi biyu; kashi na farko shi ne wanda ya kumshi amfani da wasu siraran farantai masu gilasai a samansu, a karkashi kuma suna dauke da wani bakin karfe mai zuko zafin ranar da ke fitowa daga gilasan da ke sama.  Wannan bakin karfe na jone ne da wani kwaroron famfo na roba ko jan karfe mai dauke da ruwa ko iska.  Akan dora wannan faranti ne a saman rufin gidaje, yana kallon rana a dukkan lokuta.

 

Da zarar rana ta fito, sai wadannan gilasai su rika zuko zafin suna mika wa wannan bakin karfe mai isar da zafin zuwa cikin wadannan kwaroro na jan karfe, don tafasa ruwa ko iskan da ke ciki. Idan ruwa ne a ciki, ruwan zai tafasa iya matuka, ya kuma gangara cikin famfon dake jojjone a gidan, don amfani dashi kai tsaye.  Idan kuma iska ne, zai tafasa iskar nan take, saboda zafin dake samuwa daga can sama.  Zai riskar da wannan zafi zuwa cikin gida, inda zai hadu da na’urar dumama daki (Heater), don dumama dakin nan take.  Wannan an fi amfani dashi galibi a kasashen turai, inda ake samun tsananin sanyi cikin wasu lokutan shekara, kuma shi ake kira Flat Plate Collector, a Turance.  Da wannan tsari kana iya tsakance ruwan zafi a gidanka cikin dukkan lokuta ko ranaku.  Muddin rana zata fito, ruwan zai ci gaba da tafasa, kuma kana iya sarrafa ruwan iya yadda kake so, don kana iya taskance ruwan zafin da darajarsa ya kai digiri tamanin a mizanin santigireti (80 Deg Centigrate).

 

Har wa yau, akwai ‘yan kananan fitilun hannu da na daki da aka yi masu amfani da makamashin hasken rana.  Sannan kuma akwai na’urar lissafi (calculator) duk masu amfani da wannan makamashi na hasken rana.  Daya hanyar kuma ita ce ta amfani da manyan farantai masu gilasai a sama, a kasan kuma akwai wasu karafa nau’in alminiyon ko azurfa masu nauyi da kauri.  Wannan faranti na amfani ne da wata na’ura mai suna Heliostat, wacce ke taimakawa wajen jawo zafin rana tare da taskance zafin, don yin amfani dashi a wasu lokuta dabam.  Da wannan tsari kana iya sarrafa zafin ranar da wannan na’ura ta jawo don amfani dashi a matsayin wutar lantarki, wanda zai iya sarrafa maka dukkan kwayayen lantarki da ke gidanka, da na’urar sanyaya daki (Air Conditioner) da firji da na’urar dumama daki da na’urar wanke tufafi da irinsu talabijin da rediyo da dai dukkan wani abin da wutar lantarki ke iya sarrafa shi kai tsaye.

 

Wannan tsari ya samu karbuwa a galibin kasashen duniya; daga masu arzikin zuwa talakawa; daga kamfanoni zuwa kananan hukumoni, domin tsarin na iya taskance makamashin zafin hasken rana da darajarsa ya kai digiri dubu daya ko sama da haka, a mizanin sentigireti.  A kasar Indiya misali, akwai kamfanoni wadanda musamman suke bayar da wannan tsari wajen samar da wutar lantarki.  Idan kana bukata sai su kawo maka na’urar da ke zuko zafin ranar, ya zama gidanka a kullum baka rashin wuta.  Galibi a karshen wata ake biyansu.  Masu hannu da shuni kuma kan sayi na’urar gaba daya, don hutawa da kudin wuta.

 

Wannan tsari ne mai muhammanci wanda ke iya yaye wa kasar nan babban matsalar da take ta fama dashi shekara da shekaru.  Idan muka yi la’akari da dimbin kudaden da ake ta kashewa ba tare da samun wata najita mai inganci da dorewa ba kan wutar lantarki, lokaci yayi da gwamnatin tarayya ko na jihohin Arewa musamman, zasu fara tunanin sauya hanyoyin samo wa al’umma makamashin lantarki mai dorewa ta amfani da hasken ranar da muke da shi fiye da galibin kasashen da ke amfani dashi ma.  Domin a tabbace yake cewa kasashen Afirka musamman ta yamma, suna zama ne a bigiren da yafi kowanne zafin rana a duniya a cikin dukkan ranakun shekara.  Allah ya hore mana yawan ruwan sama, da kuma hasken rana mai dorewa a dukkan shekara.  Don me baza mu yi amfani da su ba don ci gaban  al’umma?

 

Nan Gaba

Akwai bincike da wasu kasashen Turai ke yi, wanda ya kunshi harba kumbo mai dauke da wadannan farantai masu taskance hasken rana daga wajen duniyar da muke ciki.  Wannan tsari, wanda aka kiyasta zai ci a kalla fam na Ingila sama da miliyan goma (£10m), ya kumshi harba kumbo ne na musamman, mai dauke da farantai masu zuko zafi da hasken rana tutur, cikin dukkan awowi ashirin da hudu na duniya.  Domin a yayin da muka shiga duhu, to wasu kasashen na cikin hasken rana ne, wasu kuma daidai lokacin zasu shiga, wasu kuma suna gab da fita.  To wannan kumbo da ake shirin harbawa, zai kasance a saman wannan duniya ne, sama kuma da iskar da ke bugawa, sama da hazon da ke rage aukin haske da zafin da ke bugowa daga gundarin ranar.  Idan suka zuko zafin daga rana, sai wadannan farantai su cillo wa wasu na’urori masu fadi a wannan duniya tamu, kuma masu karfin karbar wannan zafi na hasken rana, a matsayin siginar rediyo (Radio Waves), don su taskance shi nan take, a ci gaba da amfani dashi.

 

A karshe, an kiyasta cewa idan har aka ci nasara wajen wannan aiki, wannan tsari na taskance makamashin hasken rana na iya zuko makamashin hasken da na’urorin samar da makamashin nukiliya guda biyar zasu iya samar dashi, wanda kuma yayi daidai da megawatts biliyan daya ko sama da haka, na makamashin wutar lantarki.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al'umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: "Kimiyya da Kere-kere," wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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