Manhajar Matambayi Ba-Ya-Bata (Search Engine)

Muƙaddima

 

A cikin littafinsa mai suna: “The Road Ahead”, Bill Gates, shugaban kamfanin Microsoft, wanda ake wa take da mai kuɗin duniya, ya gabatar da wata doguwar hasashe kan irin ci gaban da yake ganin za a iya samu dangane da yaɗuwar ilimi ta hanyar nau’uka da hanyoyin fasahar sadarwa a duniya gaba ɗaya.  Wannan mataki ko matsayi na rayuwa wanda a cewarsa duniya zata iya takawa nan ba da daɗewa ba, Bill ya kira shi “The Information Highway”, ma’ana “Turban Masana”.  Wani mataki ne wanda dunƙulewar duniya wajen sadarwa ta hanyar ilimi, zai shanye wanda ake ciki a wancan lokacin da yake rubuta littafin (1995).  Wannan duniya ta “turban masana” har wa yau, wani yanayi ne ko zamani wanda kusan kowa zai iya mallaka ya kuma sarrafa, cikin sauƙi, bayanai ko nau’in ilimn da suka shafi harkokin rayuwa da al’ummomin da ke wata duniyar, cikin sauƙi kuma a taƙaitaccen lokaci.

 

Daga cikin dirkokin da Bill ya lissafa wajen samuwar wannan turba akwai fasahar Intanet, wanda duk wanda yayi mu’amala da wannan fasaha a yanzu ya san cewa idan bamu cin ma wannan Turba ta masana da Bill ya hararo mana ba, to a ƙalla mun kusa.  Domin fasahar Intanet ta tattaro kusan dukkan siffofin wannan turba; wajen samuwar bayanai cikin  sauƙi, masu amfani, masu nasaba da halin da ake ciki; da kuma uwa uba yawaitan ilimi cikin hanyoyin fasahar sadarwa na zamani, waɗanda kuma suke kan yaɗuwa a ƙasashen duniya daban-daban.  Wannan yasa ake ma duniyarmu ta yau lakabi da “The Global Village”.  A yau duk irin bayani ko ilimin da kake nema, ina tabbatar maka cewa za ka sameshi a a wannan giza-gizan sadarwa ta duniya.  Masarrafar dake taimakawa wajen zaƙulo maka su kuwa ita ce Matambayi Ba Ya Ɓata, ko kace “Search Engine” a turance.

 

Ma’anar Matambayi Ba Ya Ɓata

 

Matambayi Ba Ya Ɓata wata manhaja ce da ke zaƙulo nau’ukan bayanan da ke maƙare a gidajen yanar sadarwa ta duniya, ta hanyar shigar da kalma ko kalmomin da suka shafi nau’in bayanin da ake so.  Ita wannan manhaja a gidan yanar  sadarwa take, kuma tana da “ɗan aike” wanda ke bi rariya-rariya na gidajen yanar sadarwa na duniya don ɗebo bayanai ta amfani da rariyar liƙau (web links), yana tarawa a gimgimarayen kwamfutocin  gidan yanarsa (Mainframe Computers); ya kuma shirya su ta inda duk ka shigar da kalmar tambaya, zai miƙo maka su don ka zaɓi wanda yayi maka.  Bayanan sun haɗa da ƙasidu da hotuna masu motsi da marasa motsi da kuma taswirori.

 

Wannan fasaha ya fara yaɗuwa ne bayan ƙirƙiro yanar sadarwa ta duniya, wato World Wide Web (www), wanda ya bayar da daman shiga wani ɗakin gidan yanar daga wani, wanda har wa yau ya canza nau’ukan bayanan da ake zubawa cikin Intanet daga haruffa ko zane kaɗai, zuwa sauti da hotuna da taswirori da shafuka masu launi iri iri.  Amma kafin nan, ana neman bayanai ne ta hanyar masarrafar “Gopher”.

 

Bunƙasarsa

 

Kamar yadda bayani ya gabata a sama, kafin bayyanan wannan sassauƙar fasaha na neman bayanai, ana amfani ne da fasahar “Gopher”, wacce a lokacin take ayyuka iri biyu; ta shigar da kai duniyar Intanet a matsayin rariyar tsallake-tsallake (web browser), ta kuma taimaka maka wajen neman bayanai.  Wannan ya faru ne saboda sauƙin mu’amalarta ita ma.  To amma daidai lokacin da Farfesa Tim Bernes-Lee ya ƙirƙiro fasahar “www,” ya samar da wata fasaha tare da ita.  Wannan fasaha, mai suna Hypertext Transfer Protocol (http), aikinta shi ne taimaka ma mai lilo a duniyar Intanet shiga wani shafi daga wani, wanda shi ma a haɗe yake da wani.

 

Samun wannan fasaha na daga cikin dalilan da suka ƙara haɓɓaka harkar kasuwanci da bincike ta Intanet.  Gidajen yanar sadarwa (web sites) suka yaɗu, musamman na saye da sayarwa.  Tambayar da ta biyo baya ita ce: tun da ga gidajen yanar sadarwa musamman na saye da sayarwa sun yaɗu, ta yaya masu sayan kayayyaki da masu bincike kan harkokin yau da kullum zasu riƙa samun bayanai cikin sauki, na abin da ke tafiya cikin wannan sabuwar kasuwa na gizo?  Wannan ta haifar da yaɗuwar gidajen yanar sadarwa na neman bayanai zalla, wato Search Engine Sites.  Daga cikin waɗanda suka fara bayyana kafin shekarar 1994, akwai irinsu world wide web warm (wwww) na Mc Bryan, wacce a dukkan rana a ƙalla masarrafar zaƙulo bayananta na yawo cikin gidajen yanar sadarwa dubu ɗari da goma (110,000) don tanada wa masu neman bayanai abin dogaro.

 

Daga wancan lokaci kuma, wanda yayi daidai da lokacin da kamfanin Yahoo! ta buɗe nata gidan yanar, zuwa yanzu, an samu yaduwar irin waɗannan gidajen yanar sadarwa na neman bayanai.  Manya daga cikinsu sune Google, MSN, da Yahoo! Samuwar wannan hanya ko masarrafan neman bayanai a Intanet na daya daga cikin abubuwan da suka ƙara habbaka shaharar Intanet da amfani dashi, bayan Imel da Zaurorin Hira da Tattaunawa da bayanansu suka gabata.  Don bayanai sun nuna cewa a 1994, gidan yanar sadarwa na neman bayanai na world wide web worm na samun masu ziyara a dubu ɗari da hamsin ne (150,000) a rana.  Zuwa shekarar 1997 kuma gidan yanar sadarwa ta Alta Vista na samun maziyarta sama da miliyan ashirin a rana.  Amma daga 1997 zuwa wannan shekara ta 2006, alƙaluman bayanai sun nuna cewa shahararriyar gidajen yanar sadarwa Matambayi ba ya ɓata na Google na samun miliyoyin ɗaruruwan maziyarta ne a rana.

 

Babban abin da ke ƙara yawan maziyarta cikin waɗannan gidajen yanar sadarwa shi ne hikimar zaƙulo “ingantattun” bayanai da a kullum ake samu ba wai yawan amsar (search results) da ake samu ba kaɗai.

 

Shahararrun Gidajen Yanansa

 

Ga taƙaitattun bayanai kan uku daga cikinsu nan:

 

Google (www.google.com):

 

Gidan yanar sadarwa ta Google, kamfanin Google Inc. da ke Amurka ne ke da ita, kuma an ƙirƙirota ne cikin shekarar 1998. Asalin masu kamfanin wasu ‘yan samari ne guda biyu – Larry Page da kuma Sargey Brian.  Sun kuma fara kirkiran Manhajan ne a shekarar 1995, kafin gama digirinsu na uku (Phd) kan fasahar kwamfuta da lissafi (Computer Engineering and Mathematics) a Jami’ar Standford dake Amurka.  Daidai wannan lokaci (1995), shekarun kowannensu bai wuce ashirin da huɗu ba (Page na da 24, shi kuma Brian na da 23).  Daga nan suka ci gaba da inganta wannan fasaha wanda a yau ya wayi gari na daya a fagen zaƙulo bayanai cikin gaugawa da inganci da tsari.  A kowace rana wannan gidan yanar sadarwa na Google na samun ɗaruruwan miliyoyin maziyarta a duniya gaba daya, kuma suna da kwamfutocin adana bayanai (Gigabyte Servers) a ƙalla dubu ɗari biyu da hamsin (250,000).

 

MSN (www.msn.com, ko http://search.live.com):

Gidan yanar sadarwan Matambayi ba ya ɓata na MSN, wanda cikakkiyar ma’anarsa ke nufin: “Microsoft Network”, na kamfanin Microsoft ne dake Amurka, wanda Bill Gates ya ƙirƙira kuma yake shugabanta, tun samar da kamfanin a shekarar 1975.  Wannan gidan yanar sadarwa na daga cikin daɗaɗɗun gidajen yana da aka fara ɗorawa a duniyar gizo.  Bayan masarrafan neman bayanai na matambayi ba ya ɓata da yake dashi, wani abin da ya ƙara masa shahara shi ne samuwar manhajar Imel da ke tattare dashi, wato hotmail (www.hotmail.com), sai kuma harkokin kasuwanci da tallace tallace.  Har wa yau, saboda ingancin da fasahar neman bayanansa ke dashi, an wayi gari bayan Google, babu irinsa.  A sabon tsarin da kamfanin ta tsara yanzu, tana sa ran ƙara yawan kwamfutocin adana bayananta (Gigabyte Servers) zuwa dubu ɗari shida (600,000), nan da shekaru biyu masu zuwa.

 

Yahoo! (www.yahoo.com, ko http://search.yahoo.com):

 

Gidan yanar sadarwa na Yahoo!, shi ne na daya a duniyan kyautata tsararrun bayanai (directory).  Waɗanda suka ƙirƙiro wannan kamfani na Yahoo Inc., kamar Google, wasu samari ne guda biyu – David Filo da Jerry Yang – masu karatun kimiyya a Jami’ar Standford dake Amurka, cikin shekarar 1994.  Wannan gidan yana ya shahara a duniya gaba daya, musamman shima saboda manhajar Imel da yake ɗauke da ita, bayan masarrafan neman bayanai na matambayi ba ya ɓata, da kuma harkokin kasuwanci da tallace-tallace.  A halin yanzu kamfanin Yahoo! Inc. na da rassa a kusan dukkan nahiyoyin duniya, kuma gidan yanar sadarwansa na samuwa cikin harshe daban daban na kabilun duniya.

 

Yadda Ake Neman Bayanai

 

A kowane gidan yanar sadarwa na matambayi ba ya ɓata, akwai hanyoyin neman bayanai iri biyu; ko dai kaje kai tsaye zuwa masarrafan zaƙulo bayanai, inda za ka shigar da kalma ko kalmomin nau’in bayanin da kake so, ka matsa “search” ko “go”, ko “enter”, amsoshin bayanan da kake so su bayyana, har ka zaɓi waɗanda suka yi daidai da irin bayanin da kake so, ko kuma kaje hanyar tsararrun bayanai (directory), inda aka shirya bayanai ɗabaƙa-ɗabaƙa, daga wannan zuwa wannan, har ka kai inda za ka samu bayanin da ya dace da buƙatarka.

 

Hanya ta farko ita ake kira “Index”, don masarrafan neman bayanan na shirya bayanan da ya ɗebo daga yawace-yawancensa ne tsibi-tsibi, a tsarin haruffan a b c d (alphabetically).  Da zarar ka mika kalma ko tambayarka, sai ya zaƙulo maka dukkan shafukan da ya ɗebo wajen yawonsa, masu kamaiceceniya da abin da ka buƙata, ya tara maka su: zabi wanda yayi maka!  Hanya ta biyu kuma ita ake ce ma “Directory”.  Kai za ka je da kanka ka ɗauko.  Ga kalma a gabanka, a misali harkan ilimi, wato “education”.  Kana matsawa zai kaika inda za ka sake samun wani dabakan na nau’ukan ilimi, da ka zaɓi wanda kake so, zai sake kaika wani shafin, har ka tiƙe ga bayanin da kake so. Sai dai duk da haka, dukkanin hanyoyin nan biyu, waje daya zasu kai ka; wato wani gidan yana ko shafi mai ɗauke da bayanin da kake so.

 

Amfani

 

Lissafa amfanin da ke tattare da Matambayi Ba Ya Ɓata abu ne mai wahala.  Abin da kawai zan ce ma mai karatu shi ne; duk ilimin da kake buƙata a duniyan nan, za ka iya samunsa,  in Allah Ya yarda.  Daga likitanci, lawyanci, tarihi, lissafi, duk za ka samu.  Duk wata kasa a duniya za ka iya karanta tarihinta da irin halin da take ciki.  Duk wata jarida a duniya, muddin ta amsa sunanta, za ka samu shafukana a wurin.  Idan kana son halin da duniya take ciki ta hanyar kere-kere, kimiyya da fasaha, duk za ka samu.  idan kana son sanin halin da duniya ke ciki kan harkan siyasa, duk za ka samu.  idan kana son sanin halin da duniya ke ciki kan harkan addini da ɗabi’u da al’adu, duk akwai.  Galibin abubuwan da na karu dasu ta hanyar ilimin Intanet da kwamfuta, duk ta wannan hanya na samesu.  Duk lokacin da nake neman bayani kan wani abu, bana buƙatar gaggawa wajen neman littafai; nan da nan sai in buga tambaya a Google ko Yahoo ko MSN, sai ka ga bayanai kamar daga sama.  Duk da yake da turanci (ko Faransanci) bayanan suke, nan da wasu ‘yan shekaru Malam Bahaushe zai iya cilla tambaya da harshen Hausa, ya samu amsoshinsu cikin harshensa.  Alhamdu lillah!

 

Kammalawa

 

Daga karshe, zai kyautu mai karatu yayi kokarin kwatanta neman bayanai ta daya daga cikin waɗannan gidajen yanar sadarwa na Matambayi Ba Ya Ɓata, don ganin yadda abin yake.  Abin zai ƙayatar da kai.  Abin da yake da muhimmanci shi ne ka iya tsara tambayarka, kamar yadda bayani ya gabata a wancan mako.  Allah Yasa mu dace, amin.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al'umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: "Kimiyya da Kere-kere," wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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