Tsarin Babbar Manhajar Android (2)

Zubin Babbar Manhajar Android

Abin da kalmar kalmar “Zubi” ke nufi shi ne Version, kamar yadda yake a harshen Turanci.  A harshe mai saukin fahimta, “Zubin Android” na nufin nau’in kare-karen da ake wa babbar manhajar ne lokaci zuwa lokaci, don habbaka ta, da ci gaba da lura da yadda jama’a ke mu’amalantarta, da irin kalubalen da suke fuskanta in akwai, da yadda za a toshe ko gyara wadannan matsaloli.  Zubin farko (Version 1.0) na Android ya fito ne a shekarar 2008 cikin watan Satumba, amma Kungiyar OHA  bata masa wani lakabi ba, duk da cewa ana kiran wannan zubi da “Android Alfa,” sabanin yadda aka saba yi a wannan fanni.  Haka ma zubi na biyu (Version 1.1) wanda ya fito a watan Fabrairu na shekarar 2009, shi ma babu wani lakabi da aka masa, duk da cewa shi ma akan kira shi “Beta,” wanda hakan ke nufin: “Manhajar da ake kan aiki akanta” ne, ba wani lakabi bane na musamman.

 

Kungiyar OHA ta fara yi wa zubin Android lakabi ne daga kan Zubi na uku (Version 1.5) wanda ta fitar a watan Afrailu na shekarar 2009, inda ta masa lakabi da “Android CupCake.”  Sai Zubi na hudu (Version 1.6) da aka fitar a watan Satumba, duk dai cikin shekarar 2009, mai lakabin “Android Donut.”   Zubi na biyar (Version 2.0 – 2.2.1) da ya fito a watan Oktoba, wata guda bayan bayyanar zubi na hudu, an masa lakabi ne da “Android Éclair.”  Lakabin “Android Froyo” shi ne Zubi na shida (Version 2.2 – 2.2.3) kuma Kungiyar OHA ta fitar dashi ne a watan Mayu na shekarar 2010.   Zubi na bakwai (Version 2.3 – 2.3.7) shi ne “Android Gingerbread” da ya fito a watan Disamba na shekarar 2010.  Sai Zubi na takwas (Version 3.0 – 3.2.6) mai lakabin “Android HoneyComb” da aka fitar a watan Fabrairu na shekarar 2011.   A Zubi na tara (Version 4.0 – 4.0.4) ne aka samu “Android Ice Cream Sandwitch.”  Shi kuma ya fito ne a watan Oktoba na shekarar 2011 din dai har wa yau.

 

A cikin watan Agusta na shekarar 2012, kwatsam sai ga Zubi na goma (Version 4.1 – 4.3.1) wanda akai wa lakabi da “Android Jelly Bean,” kuma shi ne ke dauke a kan kashi 50 cikin 100 na wayoyin Android a duniya a yau, kamar yadda kamfanin Google ya tabbatar kwanakin baya.  Zubi na goma shadaya (Version 4.4 – 4.4.4) shi aka yi wa lakabi da “Android KitKat.”  An fitar da “Android KitKat” ne a watan Satumba na shekarar 2013.  Wannan zubi ba dai kyau ba.  Ba dai kayatarwa ba.  Iya makurar kwalliya da ado ya kare masa.

 

Amma sai dai kafin ya gama game duniya kuma, Zubi na goma shabiyu (Version 5.0) ya riske shi.  Wannan zubi, mai lakabin “Android Lollypop” an fitar dashi ne ranar 3 ga watan Nuwamba na wannan shekara (2014).  Sai dai, kamar yadda aka saba a al’adance, wayoyin kamfanin Google ne kadai ke dauke da wannan zubin babbar manhaja na Android mai lakabin “Android Lollypop” a halin yanzu.  Sauran kamfanonin waya za su biyo baya nan ba da dadewa ba.  Wayoyin kamfanin Google da suka zo da wannan zubi kuwa su ne: Google Nexus 6, da kuma na’urar sarrafa bayanai mai suna Google Nexus 9 Tablet.

 

Wadannan nau’ukan zubi na babbar manhajar Android da bayaninsu ya gabata, kamfanin Google ne ke tabbatar da sauye-sauye cikin asalin madarar  babbar manhajar, sai ya fito dasu cikin wayoyinsa jerin Nexus.  Bayan haka, sai sauran kamfanonin kera wayar salula kuma su karbi asalin madarar zubin babbar manhajar su sauya shi yadda zai dace da manufofinsu na kasuwanci, kamar yadda bayani ya gabata.

 

Manufar Gina Android

Dukkan kamfanonin da ke kera wayoyin salula, da kwamfutoci, kai da ma dukkan wata na’ura ta sadarwa, suna da manufofi da suka kudurta a yayin da suke ginawa ko tsarawa ko kayatar da manhajar ko na’urar.  A bangaren Kungiyar OHA, kafin ta fara tunanin gabatar wa duniya wannan babbar manhaja ta Android, sai da ta duba wayoyin salula da ake amfani dasu a wancan lokaci (2005/2006), da irin matsaloli ko kalubale da su kansu wayoyin ke fuskanta wajen gudanar da ayyukan da aka kera su don su gudanar. Sannan suka dubi wani irin kalubalen da masu mu’amala da wayar salula suke fuskanta.

 

Abu na farko da kungiyar ta lura dashi kuwa shi ne, wayoyin salula (tun farkon samuwarsu har zuwa yau) suna amfani ne da makamashin batir mai dauke da sinaran dake samar da karfin wutar lantarki, don basu damar aiwatar da ayyukansu.  Kuma babbar matsalar masu amfani da wayar salula, bayan kudin sayan katin waya, shi ne rashin ingancin batir.  Ma’ana, makamashin batir ba ya dadewa na tsawon kwanaki ana amfani dashi, sai ya kare.  Sai kuma suka fahimci cewa  kafin a kai lokacin da kamfanonin kera batiran wayoyin salula za su kara ingancin wadannan batira kuwa, za a dauki tsawon zamani.  Tunda abu ne dake bukatar dogon nazari, da tsaban kudi don sayen kayan aiki da gudanar da bincike, kafin sinadaran da za su kara wa batira inganci da kuzari da tagomashi su samu.  Don haka sai Kungiyar OHA ta tsara yadda babbar manhajar Android za ta iya kintsa kanta da daidaita aikinta iya gwargwadon yadda kwarin batir yake.

 

Misali, idan batirin wayar salula a cike yake fal, za ta gudanar da aikinta a cike, ko iya yadda mai wayar ya tsara ta.  Idan batirin rabi ne, za ta rage karfin cin makamashi da kanta.  Idan mai wayar ya tsara ta ne iya makura, akwai wasu hanyoyin da aka tanada masa da zai iya latsawa don rage karfin dukkan masarrafan dake cin makamashi da yawa (kamar tsarin Power Saving misali).  A takaice dai, akwai manufar ragewa ko iya manejin makamashin waya yayin da ake tsara babbar manhajar Android.

 

Wannan ya saba wa wayoyin salula na zamanin da, wadanda sai abin da aka baka za ka yi aiki dashi.  Tabbas akwai wasu wayoyin dake da hanyoyin rage karfin hasken fuskar waya, da kashe wasu manhajoji, amma hakikanin manhajar tana nan yadda take.  Amma Android, akwai sadda idan ka kai makura wajen aiki da makamashi, alhali ga batirinka ya yi kasa, da kanta za ta rage yawan abin da kake kwankwada na makamashi, ta kuma sanar da kai cewa: “Akwai alamar batirinka yayi kasa, don haka waya za ta rage karfin aikinta don baka damar ci gaba da amfani da ita.”  In da wayoyin salula na zaman baya ne, sai dai kawai ka ga ta mace!

 

Na biyu, Kungiyar OHA ya sake nazarin wayoyin salula, sai ya lura cewa tunda kanana ne, hakan na nufin suna da kananan ma’adana kenan (Memory ko Storage).  Ma’ana, ba kamar kwamfuta suke ba wajen girman ma’adana da ingancinsu.  In kuwa haka ne, ashe idan aka cike su da manhajoji (Apps) musamman na wasanni (Games), za su yi nauyi matuka, su kasa aiwatar da ayyukansu yadda ya kamata.  Domin cibiyar da ke sarrafa umarnin mai mu’amala da wayar, wato Processor, zai zama a shagalce fiye da yadda aka tsara shi.  Kafin mai karatu ya kasa fahimtar lamarin, ga misali.

 

A duk sadda ka latsa wata manhaja a fuskar wayarka, umarni ne kake baiwa wayar.  Nan take za ka ga an aiwatar.  Iya karancin lokacin da aka dauka wajen aiwatar da umarninka, iya karfin cibiyar dake sarrafa sakonni ne da kuma girman ma’adanar dake wayar.  Amma idan ya zama duk sadda ka latsa wata alama ko maballi a jikin waya, sai an yi kamar dakika uku (3 seconds) kafin a aiwatar da umarninka, to, ka san akwai matsala kenan.  Da Kungiyar OHA ta lura da haka, sai ta tsara babbar manhajar Android ta yadda za ta iya jure nauyin lodin umarni, da taimaka wa cibiyar sarrafa umarni (Processor) gudanar da aikinta.  Ma’ana, akwai alaka ta taimakekeniya a tsakanin babbar manhajar wayar, da gangar-jikin wayar kenan.

 

A karo na uku, Kungiyar OHA (Open Handset Alliance) ta sake lura da su kansu nau’ukan masarrafan da ake loda wa wayoyin salula, sai ta ga su ma suna da alhaki wajen janye wa wayar salula makamashinta na batir.  Kenan ashe ba tsantsar aikin gangar-jikin wayar bane kadai ke cinye batirin, har da masarrafan da mai waya ke loda su.  Wannan ya sa Kungiyar ta samar da ka’idojin gina manhajojin dake aiki a kan babbar manhajar Android.  Wadannan ka’idoji ta samar dasu ne ta hanyar tsarin Application Programming Interface (API), wanda tsari ne da duk wani mai son gina masarrafar da za ta yi aiki a kan babbar manhajar Android, dole sai ya kintsa su cikin dabarun da yake amfani dasu wajen gina masarrafar, sannan za a iya aiki da ita a kan babbar manhajar Android.

 

Wadannan tsare-tsare dai kalmomi ne, ko hadakar kalmomi na yaren kwamfuta, wadanda suka kebanci Android.  Ilimi ne mai zurfi, ya jama’a.  Asali, galibin masarrafan dake Cibiyar Play Store an gina su ne da dabarun gina manhajar kwamfuta mai suna JAVA.  Ita kuma babbar manhajar Android asalinta daga dabarun gina manhajar kwamfuta mai suna C ne da C++.  Kenan ashe dabaru ne mabanbanta.  Idan kana bukatar tsara maballin da mai mu’amala da wayar salula zai latsa don aiwatar da wani aiki, dole ne kayi amfani da yaren da babbar manhajar Android ke iya fahimta, wanda kuma musamman aka samar dashi don yin hakan, ka cakuda shi da na JAVA, sannan ta fahimci yaren.  Nan gaba akwai bayani dake tafe kan wadannan ka’idoji da tsare-tsare.  Abin nufi dai shi ne, manufar masu babbar manhajar Android shi ne samar da masarrafan da za su zama masu karancin cin makamashi a yayin da ake aiki dasu a kan babbar manhajar.

 

Manufa ta karshe, Kungiyar OHA ta sake kallon wayoyin salula don nazarinsu, sai ta tarar akwai matsala da masu gina masarrafai ke cin karo da ita tsakanin wayoyin salula na kamfanoni daban-daban, da kuma nau’i da kintsin shafukan wayoyin.  Abin nufi, idan kana son gina manhajar wayar salula, dole a baya sai ka haddade nau’in wayar da za ta iya amfani da manhajar, da kuma girman fuskanta (Screen Siz and Orientation).  Kenan ashe idan kana son gina masarrafan da kowace waya mai dauke da babbar manhaja iri daya za ta iya amfani da ita, dole sai ka gina masarrafai iya yawan nau’ukan wayoyin da kake so su iya amfani da ita.

 

Da Kungiyar OHA ta lura da haka, sai tace akwai matsala.  Nan take ta tsara hanyoyin da masu gina masarrafar wayar salula (Mobile Phone Developers) za su iya amfani dasu don gina manhaja guda daya tak, wacce za a iya amfani da ita kan kowace irin waya ce, na kowane irin kamfanin waya, mai karamin fuska ce ko babba, in dai tana amfani da babbar manhajar Android.  Tirkashi!  Wannan manufa na cikin manufofin da suka kara wa babbar manhajar Android shahara, da tunbatsa, da kuma saurin yaduwa a duniya.


Ta’aziyya da Jaje

Shafin Kimiyya da Kere-kere na mika sakon ta’aziyyarsa da jaje ga daukacin jama’ar Kano, da Adamawa, da Yobe musamman, sanadiyyar tashin bama-bamai da suka haddasa rasa rayuka masu dinbin yawa cikin makon da ya gabata.  Muna rokon Allah ya gafarta wa wadanda suka rasa rayukansu, masu raunuka kuma ya basu sauki nan kusa.  Hakika muna fuskantar jarabawa mai girman gaske.  Allah bamu zaman lafiya a wannan kasa tamu, masu haddasa fitina kuma ya mana maganinsu baki daya, ko su waye, amin.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al'umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: "Kimiyya da Kere-kere," wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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