Tsarin Fasahar Faifan CD (1)

Mabudin Kunnuwa

A cikin kashi na farko da muka gabatar mai taken: “Tarihin Ma’adanar Bayanan Sadarwa” watanni biyu da suka gabata, mai karatu ya samu mukaddima kan yadda dan Adam ya fara wayar da kansa sanadiyyar kalu-balen rayuwa da yake samu yau da gobe, cikin abinda ya shafi tsarin adanawa da kuma taskance bayanai; daga taskance su a kwakwalwansa, zuwa taskance su cikin ababen da ke muhallinsa.

 

A karshe dai, sabanin lokutan baya, a wannan zamani dan Adam ya nemo wasu hanyoyi masu sauki da ban mamaki da yake bi wajen taskance bayanai, da kuma nemo su cikin sauki ba tare da matsala ba. Dangane da haka muka ce zamu yi nazari na musamman kan ire-iren wadannan hanyoyi ko kayayyakin adanawa da kuma taskance bayanai da dan Adam ya kirkira, inda za mu fara da dubi kan tsari da kuma kimtsin da ke cikin Fasahar Faifan CD, watau Compact Disc Technology kenan a Turance. Amma kafin mu dulmiya kan tsarin Fasahar Faifan CD, zai dace mu yi waiwaye, abinda Malam Bahaushe ke kira “adon tafiya”.


Faya-fayan Garmaho (Gramophone Records)

A tabbace yake cewa kafin bayyanar wani abu mai suna “Faifan CD”, da dama cikinmu mun san cewa fasahar da ta shahara ita ce Fasahar Faifan Garmaho, ko kuma Gramophone Records, kamar yadda take a turance. Wannan fasaha ce da ke amfani da faifai mai kama da Faifan CD da muka sani a yau, amma sai dai shi Faifan Garmaho yafi fadi, da nauyi, da kuma inganci. Na san wadanda suka taba amfani da dukkan biyun zasu sheda haka. Faifan Garmaho yafi tsawo da fadi da kauri da nauyi da kuma inganci. Bayan haka, na’urar da ke sarrafa faifan don jiyar da mai sauraro ma ta sha bamban da irin wacce muke amfani da ita a yau wajen sauraron Faya-Fayan CD. Abinda Faifan Garmaho ya rasa shine, baya iya taskance hotuna masu motsi (bidiyo), sai dai sauti kadai. Sannan kasancewar ilimin fasahar da ke wancan zamani bai fadada irin na yau ba, yawan wakokin da Faifan Garmaho ke taskancewa bai kai irin na Faya-fayan CD ba a yau. Amma duk da haka, zamanin da Faifan Garmaho ya dauka a duniya yana cin duniyarsa da tsinke, ko kadan Faifan CD bai yi ba. Domin wannan fasaha ta kwashe shekaru kusan dari tana yayi ba tare da abokiyar hamayya ba.

 

Wannan tsawon zamani da ta kwashe bai rasa nasaba da rashin wata fasaha da zata iya kalubalantarta wajen inganci da kuma tsari da kimtsi. Fasahar ma’adanar bayanai da tayi kusan zamani daya da Faifan Garmaho ita ce Fasahar VHS, watau kaset din Bidiyo, mai amfani da na’urar Video Machine wajen nuna abinda ke taskance ciki. Kuma kasancewar mahanga da kuma tsarin kowanne ya sha bamban, sai dukkan fasahohin biyu suka ci gaba da rayuwa gefe-da-gefe ba tare da wata hamayya ba. Sai wajen shekarun 1970 zuwa 1980 ne aka fara samun sauyin tunani daga kamfanoni irin su Sony da Philips da ke kasar Jamus da Jafan, lokacin da suka kafa kwamitoci a lokutan dabam-daban, don nemo hanyar samar da wata sabuwar fasaha da ta sha bamban da Faifan Garmaho.

 

Cikin shekarar 1982 aka samar da Fasahar Faifan CD ta farko, wacce kamfanonin biyu suka kirkira a lokuta dabam-daban, inda kuma kowanne daga cikinsu yayi amfani da irin tasa kwarewar, ba tare da la’akari da tsarin da dan uwansa ke amfani da shi ba. Kasancewar kowanne daga cikin kamfanonin biyu yana kera na’urorin da ake amfani dasu wajen sauraro ko kallo ko kuma amfana da bayanan da ke cikin ma’adanan, sai kowanne yayi amfani da tsarin da sai na’urar da ya kirkira kadai za ta iya jiyarwa ko nuna hotunan da ke cikin faifan da ya kera. Wannan tasa aka samu matsala, inda a karshe dai dole suka zauna suka kafa kwamiti na hadin-gwiwa da ya tsara ingantacciyar hanyar warware wannan matsala. Wannan kwamiti ne ya fitar da wasu tsare-tsare cikin wani littafi ko rahoto da ya kira “The Red Book”, wanda kuma tsare-tsaren ne suka samar da irin Faya-fayan CD da muke amfani da su a yau. Ko shakka babu, bayyanar Fasahar Faifan CD ne ya kashe wa Faifan Garmaho kasuwa gaba daya. To yaya tsarin Faifan CD yake? Kuma me ya bashi irin wannan tasiri kan Faifan Garmaho?

 

Ma’anar “Faifan CD”

Da farko dai, Faifan CD, ko Compact Disc a harshen Turanci, faifai ne mai amfani da kyallin idon lantarki (Optical Light) don taskance bayanai a tsarin sarrafa bayanai na zamani (digital format). Bayan ya taskance, akan yi da amfani da na’urar CD Player wajen kallo ko sauraron bayanan da ya taskance a wannan tsari. Faya-fayan CD na asali an kera su ne don taskancewa da kuma jiyar da sauti ko murya na wakoki ko laccoci kadai (audio CDs), kuma sun samo asali ne tun shekarar 1982, kamar yadda bayanai suka gabata a baya. Girman Faifan CD duk bai wuce milimita dari da ashirin (120mm) ba, kuma kana iya sauraran wakoki ko kallon bidiyo na tsawon minti tamanin (80mins), ko zuba tsantsar bayanai (kamar kasidu ko makaloli) da mizaninsu ya kai miliyan dari bakwai, watau 700MB kenan a mizani ko ma’aunin adana bayanai na kwamfuta.

 

Da tafiya tayi nisa an sauya girma da tsarinsu, inda aka kera kanana masu daukan wakokin tsawon mintina ashirin da hudu (24mins), masu girman milimita tamanin (80mm). Wadannan su ake kira Mini CDs. Na farkon kuma su ake kira Standard CDs. Da zamani ya kara nisa, ilmin fasahar sadarwa ya kara fadi, harkar kade-kade da wake-wake ya bunkasa, harkar fina-finai ta tumbatsa, sai kamfanonin kera Faya-fayan CD suka fara yawaita. Wannan ya haifar da samuwar nau’ukan Faya-fayan CD masu tsari dabam-daban. Kamar yadda bayani ya gabata a baya, Faifan CD na farko an yi shi ne don taskancewa da kuma sauraron wakoki kadai. Amma bunkasar ilimin sadarwa da kere-kere ya sa an samu wasu nau’uka irin su: Faya-fayan CD masu dauke da manhajar kwamfuta, watau CD-ROM, wadanda kuma sai a kwamfuta kadai ake iya amfani dasu. Akwai kuma nau’in CD-R, wanda ake iya taskance bayanai a ciki sau daya. Su kuma ana iya sanya kowane nau’in bayanai ne a cikinsu. Abinda aka zuba a ciki na bayani, shi ke iya bayar da damar sanin irin na’urar da za a yi amfani da ita wajen nunawa ko sauraro ko kuma amfani da nau’in abinda aka zuba a ciki. Akwai kuma CD-RW, watau CD Re-writable, wadanda kana iya zuba bayanai a ciki sama da sau daya, ka goge, ka sake zubawa. Amma tsarin CD-R da zarar ka sanya a karo na farko shikenan. Sai kuma tsarin VCD, watau Video CD kenan, wadanda ke dauke da hotuna masu motsi, watau bidiyo.

 

Nau’i na karshe da zamu kawo shine nau’in CD da ke taskance hotuna. Su wadannan musamman wasu kamfanoni ke kera su don zuba hotuna a ciki; kamar dai albom kenan. Wadannan nau’in su ake kira Photo CD. Samuwar wadannan nau’uka ko shakka babu ya kara wa Fasahar Faifan CD shahara nesa ba kusa ba, inda a shekarar 2004 aka kiyasta cewa an sayar da Faya-fayan CD masu dauke da wakoki, har sama da biliyan talatin. A shekarar 2007 kuma wannan adadi ya karu, inda kamfanonin da ke wannan sina’a suka ce an sayar da a kalla Faya-fayan har guda bilyan dari biyu.

 

Duk da cewa Faya-fayan CD sun shahara a hannun mutane a duniya baki daya, kuma ma har wasu na ganin cewa lokacinsu ya fara wucewa, saboda Faifan DVD da Blue-Ray Disc da aka samu yanzu, ba dukkan masu amfani da wannan fasaha suka san hakikaninsa ba. Da me aka kera Faifan CD? Ba kowa zai baka wannan amsa ba. Muna dai amfani dashi ne a tsarin nan na Black Box kawai; watau a ci baure, amma ban da tona cikinsa. Amma kuma duk da cewa lokaci ko zamanin Faifan CD ya kusan wucewa, sanin tsari da kimtsin wannan fasaha zai kayatar da mai karatu sosai. Akwai abin al’ajabi sosai, musamman kan abinda ya shafi ilimin da aka yi amfani dashi wajen kerawa da kuma tsara wannan fasaha shahararriya. Har wa yau, sanin tsari da kimtsin wannan fasaha na Faifan CD zai rage wa mai karatu zangon karatu idan muka zo yin bayani kan tsarin Faya-fayan DVD nan gaba in Allah Yaso. A yanzu ga takaitattun bayanai kan yadda tsari da kuma kimtsin Faifan CD yake.

 

Tsari da Kimtsin Faya-fayan CD

Kowanne daga cikinclip_image002 nau’ukan Faifan CD da bayaninsu ya gabata a sama, ana kera su ne daga gasasshen roba nau’in Polycarbonate, kuma nauyin kowanne daga cikinsu giram goma shashida ne (16g), mai kuma kaurin milimita daya da digo biyu (1.2mm). Idan kayi rigingine da Faifan CD daidai fuskar da ke kyalli, za ka samu bangarori guda shida da yake takama da su. Wadannan bangarori sun faro ne daga ramin da ke tsakiyansa, zuwa bangaren karshe mai kyalli da ke gefen kowane CD. Bangaren farko shine ramin da ke tsakiyansa, wanda a harshen turanci ake kira Spindle. Wannan rami shine ke rike sandar na’urar da ke sarrafa Faifan a lokacin da ake kallo ko sauraron abinda Faifan ke watsawa na sauti ko kallon hotuna masu motsi da yake nunawa. Sai kuma bangare na biyu da ke farfajiyar ramin, mai kama da gilashi. Wannan shi ake kira Clamping Ring. Kamar yadda mai karatu ya sani kuma ya gani, wannan gilashi na gewaye ne da ramin da ke rike sandar na’urar CD Player.

 

Sai bangare na uku da ke biye da shi, watau Stacking Ring, wanda shi ma a gewaye yake. Sai kuma bangare na hudu mai suna Mirror Band, watau da’irar da ke biye da bangare na uku kenan, mai kama da madubi, mai daukan ido. Daga shi kuma sai bangare na biyar, watau bangare mafi fadi kenan, watau bangaren da ke taskance bayanan da ake zubawa a cikin Faifan. Wannan bangare kuwa shi ake kira Data, kuma shine ya faro daga jikin Mirror Band, har zuwa gab da karshe ko gefen Faifan. A karshe kuma sai bangaren karshe, wanda shine layin da mai karatu ke gani a gefen Faifan CD mai kyalli, siriri, mai kaifi. Wannan shi ake kira Rim a turance.

 

Wadannan su ne bangarori guda shida da kowane Faifan CD ke dauke dasu, kuma su ne kayan aikinsa. Bayan haka, idan ka juya Faifan kowane CD, zaka samu tambari ko na alamu ko rubutu da ke dauke da suna ko tambarin kamfanin da ya sana’anta ko kera shi. Kafin a buga wannan tambari ko rubuta duk abinda aka rubuta a bangon kowane CD, sai an zuba ruwan tagulla (aluminium) mai kyalli, da kuma sinadaran kimiyya nau’in Lacquer, mai daukan ido, sannan a maka tambarin a samansa. Wannan bai tsaya kan Faya-fayan CD da ke zuwa dauke da bayanai kai tsaye daga kamfanonin da suka kera kadai ba, a a, hatta sababbi wadanda babu komai a cikinsu. Duk suna dauke ne da wadannan sinadarai da bayaninsu ya gabata.

 

Fallayen Faifan CD

Mai karatu zai yi mamakin jin cewa kowane Faifaclip_image004n CD guda daya hadaka ne na fallaye guda biyar, wani a kan wani. Kowanne daga cikin biyar din nan yana da aikinsa, da siffarsa da kuma tsarinsa, wanda ya sha bamban da wanda yake sama ko kasa dashi. Kamar yadda mai karatu zai gani daga hoton da ke dauke da wadannan fallaye guda biyar, da zarar ka fede kowane Faifan CD, abinda za ka samu kenan. Mu fara daga kasa zuwa sama mu gani. Bangaren farko (harafin “A”) shine bangaren da ke fuskantar idon lantarkin da ke sarrafa shi a jikin na’urar CD Player. A takaice dai shine cikin Faifan CD, wanda idan ya samu kwarzane ko datti ya cika shi, to sai an samu matsalar kallo ko sauraron abinda ke cikinsa. Wannan bangare na farko dai gasasshen roba ne nau’in Polycarbon, kuma shine ke taskance dukkan bayanan haruffa ko wakoki ko hotunan da ke ciki, tsibi-tsibi (ko bumps, kamar yadda Malam Kimiyyar Sadarwa suke kiransa).

 

Sai bangare na biyu (harafin “B”), wanda a siffar gilashi ko rariya yake. Aikinsa shine hasko dukkan bayanan da ke tare a cikin bangaren farko da bayaninsa ya gabata. Sai bangare na uku (harafin “C”), wanda faifai ne mai dauke da sinadaran kimiyya nau’in Lacquer. Aikin wannan falle kuwa shine taimaka wa bangare na biyu yin aikinsa yadda ya kamata, ta hanyar tabbatar masa da tagomashin sinadaran da ke haskaka wadannan bayanai da ke fallen farko, kamar yadda bayanai suka gabata. Idan muka kara sama kadan zamu ci karo da bangare na hudu (harafin “D”), watau bangon da ke dauke da tambari ko sunan Faifan kenan daga saman faifan. Aikinsa shine daukan tsarin rubutu ko alamu da za a iya mannawa don sanya suna ko sheida. Har wa yau idan mai karatu bai mance ba, wannan bangare ne ke dauke da sinadaran ruwan tagulla da na nau’in Lacquer, don bayar da damar sanya tambarin.

 

Sai kuma bangare na karshe (harafin “E”), watau gurun karshe da ke gefen kowane Faifan CD, mai kyalli, mai kuma kaifi. Mai karatu ya lura a duk sa’adda ya dauki Faifan CD, zai ga tambarin da aka manna a bayansa bai lullube wannan bangare ko gargare siriri ba. Wannan bangare, idan ba a mance ba, shine wanda a baya muka kira Rim a turance, kuma yana dauke ne da sinadaran kimiyya na haske nau’in Laser. Har wa yau, yana damfare ne da falle na biyu (harafin “B”). Aikinsa shine yin amfani da wannan sinadaran haske na Laser don yafuto hasken da ke samuwa a falle na biyu da muka yi bayani, wanda shi kuma ke hasko bayanan da ke cikin fallen farko (harafin “A”). Ma’ana, idan ka sanya Faifan CD a cikin na’urar da ke sarrafa shi, watau CD Player, da zarar ya fara juyawa, idon hasken lantarki da ke cikin na’urar zai haskaka Faifan, sai wannan bangare na biyar (da ke harafin “E”) ya yafuto hasken, don cilla wannan haske zuwa falle na biyu, wanda kamar madubi ne ga fallen da ke dauke da bayanan da ke cikin Faifan.

 

Da wannan mai karatu zai fahimci cewa kowane Faifan CD na amfani ne da haske wajen fahimtar sakon da ke cikinsa, da kuma jiyarwa ko nuna bayanan da ke ciki. Wadannan fallaye biyar da bayaninsu ya gabata, su ne aka hade su waje daya a matsayin Faifan CD guda daya. Kuma shi yasa a turance ake kiran kowane Faifai da suna: Compact Disc, ma’ana Faifai mai dauke da wasu faya-fayan a cikinsa.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al'umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: "Kimiyya da Kere-kere," wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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