Tsarin Sadarwar Wayar Salula (3)

Matashiya

A makon da ya gabata mun yi alkawarin karasa bayanai kan tsarin aikawa da karban sakonnin murya ko text a tsarin sadarwa ta Wayar Salula, inda muka ce yau za mu dora, don cike gibin da muka baro a baya.  A wancan mako har wa yau, mun yi dare ne lokacin da muka koro bayani kan abu na karshe da ake bukatar samuwarsa kafin isar da sakon kira a tsarin sadarwa na wayar salula.  Wannan tasha kuwa ita ce tashar Mobile Switching Center, wato babban tashar da ke kumshe da dukkan bayanai da lambobin masu sadarwa na kamfain sadarwa.  Wacce kuma ke hade dukkan zangunan sadarwa da ke cikin wannan tsari na kamfanin. Idan mai karatu bai mance ba, muka ce wannan tasha ta kumshi muhimman zanguna ne guda hudu masu matukar muhimmanci, masu kuma aiwatar da wasu ayyuka wajen sadarwa ko tabbatar da wayar da ake bugo wayar daga gareta.

 

A karshe kuma mu kawo misali tabbatacce da ke nuna matakan da duk wani sakon kira ke bi kafin isa masaukinsa.  A yau za mu dora, ta hanyar kawo bayanai kan wadannan muhimman bangarori guda hudu da matakan tsarin sadarwa tsakanin wayar salula da wayar salula.

 

Home Location Register (HLR)

Bangaren Home Location Register (HLR), shi ne mai lura da dukkan bayanan da suka shafi layi ko lamban da kake amfani dashi a wayar salularka; yaushe ka fara amfani dashi?  Nawa ka zuba a ciki tunda ka saya?  Wani layi ka kira na karshe?  Kai a ina ma kake a halin da ake Magana?  Idan mai karatu bai san wannan ba, ya dubi fuskar wayar salular sa, zai ga tana nuna masa sunan bigiren da yake; a Area 1 ne ko Wuse ko Kano ko Kaduna; Unguwa Uku ne ko Sallare ko BUK?  Duk inda kake, Home Location Register ne ke dauke da bayanin inda kake.  Kuma wannan zai ringa nunawa (idan ka tsara wayar ka ta rika nunawa kenan).

 

Har wa yau, aikin wannan bangare ne ya rika hada ka da wanda kake son Magana dashi yayin da ka buga lambarsa; ya kuma rika isar da masu neman ka ta lambar da kake amfani dashi a wannan lokaci. Haka idan ka zo karshen maganan da kake yi da abokin maganarka, Home Location Register ce za ta tsayar da sadarwan (idan ka kashe wayarka ko abokin maganar ka ya kashe tasa).  Wannan kadan cikin aikin wannan bangare kenan dake Mobile Switching Center (MSC), wato babban zangon sadarwa da kowace kamfanin sadarwa ta wayar salula ke amfani dashi.

 

Visitor Location Register (VLR)

Sai kuma bangaren Visitor Location Register (VLR), wanda aikin sa ne ya taskance lambobin wani zangon da ba nasu bane, a matsayin “masu ziyara” kenan.  Misali, idan a Kaduna kake, Unguwar Sarki, sai kaje ziyara Bauchi, kuma wayar salularka na da layin MTN, kana zuwa, Visitor Location Register za ta sheda ka, cewa bako ne kai, duk da cewa kamfanin daya ce.  Hujja a nan kuwa shi ne, don dukkan bayanan da lambarka ta kumsa suna zangon sadarwa (wato Cell Tower) ne dake Unguwar Sarki na Kaduna.  Kana shigowa sai Visitor Location Register ta taskance bayananka na wucin-gadi, har ka gama abin da ya kawo ka, ka tafi.  Iya zaman ka a Bauchi, za ka samu sadarwa da wadanda suke wasu wurare kuma kai ma za a iya samunka.

 

Haka idan kana tsarin Roaming ne, wato tsarin da ke bayar da daman wuce kadadan yanayin sadarwan kamfanin da ke sadar da kai, don ci gaba da samun hanyar sadarwa ba tare da matsala ba.  Da zarar ka bar wannan bigire, sai a share bayanan lambarka da ke wannan taska.

 

Authentication Center (AuC)

Bangaren Authentication Center rumbun bayanai ne na nau’ukan kalmomin shiga da masu lambobin sadarwa ke tsare layukan su dasu.  Misali, idan ka sanya ma layin sadarwan ka PIN Code, to kalmomin da ka shigar na zarcewa ne kai tsaye zuwa Authentication CenterWannan wani nau’i ne na tsaro ga masu layukan, inda babu wanda zai iya ganin asiran da suka taskance a layukan sadarwan su sai su ko kuma wanda suka ga daman bashi kalmomin da suka shigar.  Har wa yau, idan kana da PIN Code babu wanda zai iya katse maka sadarwanka ta kowace hanya ce, a halin da kake Magana da wani.  Kowace irin na’ura yayi amfani da ita kuwa.

 

Wannan tasa hukumar Amurka taki amincewa da wannan tsarin sadarwa na GSM, domin idan mutum ya bugo maka waya, baza ka iya sanin daga ina yake bugo maka ba, sai in gaya maka yayi.  Hakan na da wahalar ganewa domin dukkan layukan, lambobin kamfani daya suke amfani da su, kuma sun takaita ga kamfanonin sadarwan ne, ba wata jiha ko wasu birane ba.

 

Sabanin tsarin sadarwan tarho na Landline, inda za ka iya sanin daga inda ake bugo maka.  Amurka ta ki wannan tsari ne saboda dalilai irin na tsaro.  Idan ana son gano inda kake, daga inda kake waya kawai ana iya tace maganan da kake yi da abokin maganar ka; ana iya sanin daga bigiren da kake bugowa ko kake karban sakon, da dai sauran bayanai.  Amma da tsarin GSM basu iya wannan sam ko kadan.  Ire-iren wadannan hanyoyi sun hada da PIN Code, da PUK Code, da kuma Security Code.  Dukkan su a taskance suke cikin wannan rumbu ta Authentication Center.

 
Equipment Identity Register (EIR)

Wannan bangare ne ke dauke da dukkan sunayen wayoyin salular da ke dauke da layi ko lambar kamfanin sadarwan.  Ma’ana, idan ka sayi layin MTN, ka sanya cikin wayar salularka nau’in Nokia 3310 misali, wannan bangare ne zai taskance nau’in wayar da kake amfani da ita, ya tabbata mai kyau ce wacce aka kera ta amfani da ka’idojin sadarwa ta duniya, mai kuma dauke da lambobin sadarwa ta duniya da bayanan su ya gabata a makon jiya, wato International Mobile Equipment Identity.  Idan ba mai kyau bace, ko kuma bata cika wannan ka’ida ba, wannan bangare na Equipment Identity Register zai lika mata alamar “Invalid”, ma’ana wacce bata cika ka’ida ba, kuma baza a iya amfani da ita ba.  Haka idan aka sace maka wayar salularka mai dauke da layin sadarwanka a ciki, kana iya sanar da kamfanin sadarwanka, zasu lika mata wannan alama ta “Invalid”.

 

A wasu lokuta ma suna iya bata wayar idan kana so, ya zama barawon yayi aikin banza kenan.  Amma ba duk kamfanin sadarwa ke yin haka ba, saboda tsoron keta da wani na iya ma wayar wani.  Don babu aminci a tsakaninmu kuma mutane basu bin doka, shi yasa.  Wadannan a takaice sune manya kuma muhimman bangarorin da ke dauke cikin wannan babban zangon kamfanin sadarwa, wato Mobile Switching Center (MSC).  A yanzu ga dan takaitaccen tsarin da kowane sako na kira ko text ke bi kafin isa ga wanda aka aika masa.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al'umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: "Kimiyya da Kere-kere," wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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