Yadda Aka Gina Manhaja da Shafukan Facebook (1)

Asali da Samuwar Dandalin Facebook

Dandalin Facebook ya samo asali ne cikin watan Fabrairu a shekarar 2004. Kuma wanda ya kirkiri gidan yanar sadarwar wani matashi ne mai suna Mark Zuckerberg, lokacin da yake karatun fannin Kwamfuta a Jami’ar Harvard da ke kasar Amurka.  Ya fara gina wannan gidan yanar sadarwa na Facebook ne a kan kwamfutarsa nau’in Mac, a cikin dakin kwanan dalibai (Dormitory), da misalin karfe goma na dare.  Daga nan ya sanar da wasu cikin abokan karatunsa su uku, wadanda su ma fannin kwamfuta suke karantawa a lokacin, ya kuma shigar da su cikin wannan aiki don su taimaka wajen ingantawa tare da yada wannan aiki da ya faro.  Wadannan abokai nasa dai su ne: Eduardo Saveri, da Dustin Moskovitz, sai kuma Chris Hughes.

 

Tunanin da ya haifar da wannan dandali na Facebook  dai ya samo asali ne daga tsarin da wata makaranta ke bi wajen buga sunayen dalibai da ke makarantar, tare da fannonin da suke karantawa, don raba wa dalibai saboda samar da  sanayya a tsakaninsu.  Wannan makaranta dai ita ce Philips Exerta Academy, wacce Mark ya halarta kafin zuwansa Jami’ar Harvard.  Daga wannan dan karamin littafi da makarantar ke raba wa dalibai ne – wanda sauran daliban makarantar suka sanya wa  suna “Facebook” a tsakaninsu –  Mark ya dauko wannan suna.  Sunan farko da ya fara ba wannan dandali shi ne « thefacebook.com ».  Kuma ya samar da wannan gidan yanar sadarwa ko dandali ne don yada hotunan abokansa da kuma na wasu dabbobi, inda ya sanya wata manhaja da masu ziyara ke amfani da ita wajen jefa kuri’a kan hoton dabba ko hoton wani abokinsa da ya fi kyau da kayatarwa. Daga baya sai aka samar da yadda duk mai ziyara zai iya mallakar shafinsa na musamman, don zuba nasa hotuna ko bayanai, da kuma hanyoyin gayyatar duk wanda kake son ya zama abokinka.  Da tafiya ta kara gaba sai kwararru kan gina manhajar kwamfuta (Computer Programmers ko Developers) suka fara samar da hanyoyin gina kananan manhajoji ko masarrafai (apps) masu sawwake mu’amala da juna a wannan shafi.

 

Shafin Facebook na asali dai ya takaita ne ga abokanan Mark kadai.  Daga baya sai suka fadada wannan dandali zuwa sauran daliban da ke Jami’arsu.   Sai suka sake fadadawa zuwa daliban da ke Jami’ar Standford.  Da lifafa ta ci gaba kuma, sai suka sake fadada damar shiga ga dukkan daliban Jami’ar Amurka kadai.  Daga nan suka ce ‘yan Sakandare ma na iya shiga.  Da abin ya dada kasaita sai suka fadada dandalin ta yadda duk mai shekaru 13 zuwa sama zai iya yin rajista ya mallaki shafinsa na kansa.  A halin yanzu wannan dandali na Facebook na dauke ne da mambobi masu rajista wadanda suka mallaki shafin kansu sama da miliyan dubu daya da dari daya (1.1 billion).  Wannan ya sanya Dandalin Facebook a sahun farko wajen yawan masu rajista da masu ziyara cikin jerin Dandalin Abota.

 

Manufar Samar da Dandalin Facebook

Daga bayanan da suka gabata kan tarihin wannan dandali masu karatu za su fahimci babbar manufar samar da wannan dandali; wato sadarwa irin ta abota ko zumunta.  Wannan shi ake kira “Social Networking.”  Wannan tsari a fili yake amma ba kowa ke iya fahimtar hikimar wannan tsari ba sai wanda ya mayar da hankalinsa kan dukkan ababen da masu shafin ko dandalin suka samar wajen aiwatar da wannan sadarwa a tsakanin jama’a.

 

Daga cikin tsare-tsaren wannan dandali da za mu duba cikin jerin kasidun da za mu kawo nan gaba, akwai manhajar sakonni, wato “Messages”, da manhajar neman abota, wato “Friend Request,” da manhajar hirar ga-ni-ga-ka, wato “Chat,” da manhajar sanarwa, wato “Notifications,” inda za ka ga sanarwa da ake maka kan duk wani abin da kake da sila da shi.  Wasu daga cikin wadannan tsare-tsare sun hada da manhajar Zaure ko Dandali, wato “Groups,” inda jama’a ke tattaunawa kan al’amuran rayuwa baki daya.  Akwai manhajar shafukan tallace-tallace, wato “Pages,” wadanda ke bayar da dammar tallata hajoji ko wani gwarzo, kamar yadda muka sani.

 

Bayan haka, akwai kuma tsare-tsare da aka samar wa mai shafi a Dandalin don inganta masa sadarwa tsakaninsa da jama’a.  Daga cikin tsare-tsaren akwai manhajoji, wato “Apps,” da kuma kafar samar da labaru, wato “News Feed,” da bangaren tallata wa mai shafi shafukan wasu, wato “Suggested Pages,” da “Suggested Friends,” da kuma “Suggested Groups.” Har wa yau, akwai hanyar taimaka wa mai shafi neman mutane, ko duk wani abin da ya shafe su: hotuna ne, soye-soyensu ne (likes), abokansu ne, garuruwansu ne, kasashensu ne, ko makarantu da wuraren ayyukansu.  Manhajar da ke taimakawa wajen yin hakan kuwa ita ce manhajar “Matambayi Ba Ya Bata”, wato “Graph Search” da ke saman shafin kowane mai shafi a dandalin Facebook.

 

Wadannan kadan ne daga cikin abubuwan da ke inganta sadarwa a tsakanin jama’a a dandalin Facebook. Bayanai na nan zuwa kan kowannensu, daya bayan daya. A ci gaba da kasancewa tare damu.

 

Na’ukan Shafin Dandalin Facebook

Dandalin Facebook ba gidan yanar sadarwa bane mai dauke da shafuka ‘yan kididdigaggu da ke sarkafe a Uwar-garke (Server) kwaya daya ba.  Nesa da haka.  Dandali ne da aka kera ko aka gina a tsari nau’i biyu; tsarin shiga ta kafar kwamfuta (na kan tebur ko na tafi-da-gidanka) – wato: “Desktop App” – da kuma tsarin shiga ta kafar wayar salula, wato: “Mobile App.”  Duk da cewa idan kana da wayar salula kana iya amfani da ita wajen shiga ta hanyar mashigar kwamfuta, wato: “Desktop App,” amma ba za ka iya shiga dandalin facebook da kwamfutarka ta amfani da mashigar wayar salula ba, wato: “Mobile App.”

 

Akwai nau’ukan masarrafar shiga shafukan yanar gizo da a turancin kimiyyar sadarwa ake kira “Browser,” nau’i biyu.  A hausance nakan kira su “Masarrafar lilo.”  Akwai wadanda aka gina don amfani dasu a kwamfuta, da wadanda aka gina don amfanin wayar salula.  Kowanensu kana iya amfani da shi wajen shiga shafuka ko Dandalin Facebook cikin sauki.

 

Sannan kana iya shiga dandalin Facebook ta hanyoyi guda biyu a wayar salula. Ko dai ta hanyar manhajar facebook da ke wayarka, wato: “Facebook Mobile App,” ko kuma ta amfani da masarrafar lilo, wato “Browser” kenan.  Cikin mutane biliyan daya da miliyon dari daya da hamsin da ke da shafi a dandalin Facebook, an kiyasta cewa a duk wata daya, mutum miliyan dari takwas da hamsin (850m) na shiga shafukansu na Facebook ne ta hanyar wayar salula.

 

Tsarin Shiga Shafin Facebook

A tsarin mu’amala da shafukan yanar gizo (web pages), da zarar ka shigar da adireshin gidan yanar sadarwa ka matsa maballin “Enter” daga jikin allon shigar da bayananka (keyboard) ko na jikin wayarka, nan take masarrafar lilo (browser) za ta nemo maka bayanan wannan gidan yanar sadarwa daga Uwar-garken (Server) da ke dauke da shafukan, sai su bayyana a shafin kwamfutarka ko wayarka. Amma a tsarin dandalin Facebook ba haka lamarin yake ba.

 

Idan kana son isa ga shafinka a dandalin facebook, da zarar ka shigar da adireshin shafin, abu na farko da wayarka ko kwamfutarka za ta fara isa gare shi shi ne babbar manhajar dandalin Facebook, wato “Facebook Platform.”  Daga nan sai wannan manhaja ta mika sakonka ko bukatarka ga babbar rumbun bayanan dandalin, wato “Database.”  Idan kana da shafi a dandalin, suna (Username) da Kalmar iznin shiga (Password) da shigar za su sa a sheda ka, sai nan take rumbun bayanai ta cillo shafinka ga babbar manhajar dandalin, ita kuma ta cillo wa wayarka ko kwamfutarka, sai nan take ka ga shafinka ya bayyana.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al'umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: "Kimiyya da Kere-kere," wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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