Yadda Kasashe Ke Sanya Wa Fasahar Intanet Takunkumi (2)

Tsari da Nau’ukan Takunkumi

Kamar yadda bayanai suka gabata a kasidar baya, cewa duk da a yanzu ana zargin kasar Sin da wannan aiki kamar ita ce ta fara shi, kusan dukkan manyan kasashe da ma kananansu, sun dade wajen iya sanya wa wannan fasaha takunkumi a fili, ba ma a boye ba.  Mai karatu zai fahimci hakan ne daga bayanan da ke nuna irin nau’ukan fasahar da kasashe ke amfani dasu wajen sanya kariya daga bayanan da ke dibge cikin wannan duniya mara kofar shiga balle na fita.

 

Kasashe sun sha bamban wajen nau’in sanya kariya ga bayanai.  Da farko ma dai akwai nau’in takunkumin da ya shafi hana mu’amala da fasahar ma gaba daya, sai a idon gwamnati ko hukumominta.  Sai nau’in da ya shafi hana shiga wasu gidajen yanar sadarwa, ta hanyar toshe adireshinsu daga kwamfutar da ke dauke dasu.  Sai kuma wanda ya shafi toshe uwar garken da ke dauke da wasu shafuka na musamman.  A karshe kuma akwai nau’in kariya da wasu kasashe ke amfani dashi ta hanyar hada kai da gidajen yanar sadarwa na Matambayi-Ba-Ya-Bata (Search Engine Sites), don su rika tace wasu kalmomi ko jumloli da al’ummar wata kasa ko wasu kabilu ke nema ta hanyar gidajen yanar sadarwasu.  Wadannan su ne nau’ukan takunkumin da kasashe ke amfani dasu wajen sanya kariya ko hana amfani da wannan fasaha, a jimlace. Duk da yake akwai wasu hanyoyin da suka sha bamban da wadannan, wanda kasashe ko ma’aikatan leken asiri ke amfani dasu a boye idan suna neman wasu bayanai ko hana amfani dasu.  Bayani zai zo kansu nan gaba.

 

Sannan kuma, dukkan wadannan nau’ukan kariya da ake sanyawa, ba kai tsaye ake yinsu ba, a a.  Ana amfani ne da wasu masarrafai na kwamfuta da ke da kwarewa wajen yin hakan.  Shahararriyar cikinsu ita ce masarrafar da kamfanin Secure Computing ke amfani da ita, mai suna SmartFilter.  Wannan masarrafa ta shahara sosai, ta yadda galibin kasashe irinsu Saudiyya, da Amurka, da Burtaniya, da Sudan, da kasar Tunisiya ke amfani da ita wajen wannan aiki; a fili, ba ma a boye ba. Da ita ake tace nau’ukan gidajen yanar sadarwar da gwamnati ta haramta shigarsu. Da ita ake iya kare mai amfani da Intanet samun bayanai kan wasu kalmomi ko jumloli, kamar yadda yazo a sama.  Sauran hanyoyin da wasu kasashe ke amfani dasu kai tsaye sun kumshi yin amfani da ‘yan Dandatsa (wato Hackers), da amfani da tsarin DDoS (wato Distributed Denial of Service) – wanda tsari ne da ya shafi yin amfani da wasu kwamfutoci da basu ji-ba-basu-gani ba a wata uwa duniya, don darkake wata kwamfutar da ke dauke da gidajen yanar sadarwar wasu, ta hanyar aiko mata da bukatun bayanai marasa kan gado babu kakkautawa, har sai ta sume.

 

Nau’in “Hana Mu’amala”

Wannan shi ne nau’in kariyar da wasu kasashe ke sanyawa don hana al’ummarsu mu’amala da fasahar Intanet gaba daya, sai yadda gwamnati ta so.  Misali, a kasar Kuba (Cuba), gwamnati ta hana mu’amala da fasahar Intanet, kuma duk wanda aka kama shi yana yi, to zai dandana kudarsa kuwa.  Gwamnatin kasar tayi haka ne saboda a cewarta, galibin abubuwan da ke tare cikin wannan fasaha na harzuka mutane ne suyi wa gwamnati bore, wanda kuma a tsarin dokar kasar, ba karamin laifi bane.  Wannan bai hana a samu wasu ‘yan tsiraru da ke mu’amala da fasahar ba a boye, ko kuma hukumar gwamnati da ke amfani dashi.  Amma ba kowa-da-kowa ba.  Idan kuwa aka kama wani ya karya wannan doka, to zai fuskanci fushin gwamnati.  Sauran kasashen duniya sun sha zargin gwamnatin kasar da laifin taka ‘yancin dan Adam ta wannan hanya, amma gwamnati tayi biris da wannan tuhuma ko zargi.  A wannan tsarin, ba a barin kowa yayi amfani da fasahar, balle ma a kai ga kama ka da laifin shiga wani gidan yanar sadarwar da aka haramta.  Wannan shi ne nau’in takunkumi na farko, kuma yafi shahara ne a kasashen da ke bin tsarin Kwaminisanci ko Gurguzu.

 

Nau’in “Killace Masu Mu’amala”

Wannan nau’in takunkumi shi ne wanda ya shafi tanada wuri na musamman don masu mu’amala da wannan fasaha su rika zuwa suna mu’amala da ita, a halin da gwamnati ko hukumar gwamnati ke lura  da gidajen yanar sadarwar da suke shiga ko mu’amala dasu.  A wannan yanayi dai ba a hana ka ba, amma kuma ba ka da hakkin mallakar wannan fasaha a gidanka, ko shagonka, ko kuma ofishinka, sai dai wuraren da gwamnati ta tanada.  Kasar Koriya-ta-Arewa (North Korea) na amfani ne da wannan tsari, inda gwamnati ta killace wasu wurare da ake kira “Connection Spots”, don zuwa a yi mu’amala da wannan fasaha.  A kasar, babu kamfanin da ke da hakkin hada kwamfutoci da Intanet sai hukumar gwamnati.  Wannan nau’in takunkumi, kamar wanda ya gabace shi, galibin kasashen gabas ne suka fi amfani dashi (irinsu Koriya ta Arewa, da kasar Bama da sauran ire-irensu).  Kamar wadanda suka gabace su a sama, gwamnatocin da ke killace masu mu’amala da wannan fasaha a wuri daya don lura da aiyukan da suke yi, sun sha suka da zargi daga kungiyoyin kare hakkin dan Adam da kuma Majalisar Dinkin Duniya. Amma ko biris su ma basu yi ba.

 

Nau’in “Tace Abin Mu’amala”

Wannan shi ne shahararren nau’in takunkumin da kasashe ke amfani da shi a yau.  Kamar yadda mai karatu ya gani, nau’i ne da ya shafi haramta wa mai mu’amala da Intanet wasu gidajen yanar sadarwa ko shafukan yanar sadarwa. Wannan tsarin mu’amala ya shafi shiga gidan yanar sadarwan, ko debo abin da ke ciki, ko kuma zuba bayanai a gidan yanar.  A wannan nau’i na takunkumi, ana iya toshe duk wani tsarin mu’amala da kake yi da Intanet.  Tsarin takunkumin ya shafi “tace” gidajen yanar sadarwa ne, ta hanyar toshe wadanda aka haramta, ko kuma toshe bayanan da kake mu’amala dasu a gidan yanar, bayan ka shiga.  Kawai sai ka ga an ce maka: Connection Time Out.  Ko kuma ka ga an rubuta maka: Error 505 – Gateway Time Out.  Sakonni makamantan wadannan na ishara ne ga wani nau’i na toshe abin mu’amala a gidan yanar sadarwar da ka shiga, a kasar da kake, ko kuma a ofishi ko ma’aikatar da kake.  A wannan tsari, ana amfani ne da masarrafar tacewa, wato Filtering Software, irin na kamfanin Secure Computing, wato SmartFilter, ko kuma Green Dam Youth Escort da kasar Sin ke kokarin fara amfani da ita yanzu.

 

Aikin wadannan masarrafai ya danganci abin da kake so.  Kana iya amfani dasu wajen toshe lambar kwamfutar da ke dauke da wasu gidajen yanar sadarwa, wato IP Address, ta yadda duk wanda ya sanya adireshin don nemo gidan yanar sadarwar, ba zai samu ba, balle har ya iya shiga.  Wannan tsari shi ake kira “IP Blocking”.  Sannan ana iya amfani da wadannan masarrafai wajen tace dukkan iyayen garken (servers) da ke dauke da wasu gidajen yanar sadarwa.  Wannan tsari shi ake kira “DNS Filtering”.  Wannan tsari yana toshe hatta manhajar Imel da za ka shiga don aikawa da sakonni, ko kuma ka’idar da ke sadar da kai da Intanet ko kuma na Imel, (wato HTTP, da POP, da kuma FTP).  Bayan haka, da wadannan masarrafai ana iya tace wasu shafuka na musamman da ke wasu gidajen yanar sadarwa, ta hanyar aiyana wasu kalmomi ko jumloli na musamman.  Wannan tsari shi ake kira URL Filtering, kuma dashi ne kasashe ke amfani wajen toshe gidaje da shafukan yanar sadarwar batsa da caca da wasu kalmomi da suka shafi siyasar kasar, irinsu Kalmar “Tibet”, da “Dale Lama” a kasar Sin.  Idan ka nemi bayanai masu dauke da wadannan kalmomi, kuma a kasar Sin kake a lokacin, baza ka samu bayanai ba ko aranyo!  Wadannan kalmomi akan shigar dasu ne cikin masarrafar, a kuma nuna mata cewa duk sadda wani ya nemi bayanai ta masarrafar lilonsa, wato Browser, to ki toshe duk bayanan da ke dauke dasu.  Bayan wannan, hukumomin kasar kan hada baki da kamfanoni irinsu Google da Yahoo, wajen wannan aiki.

 

Wasu kasashen kuma kan ajiye wasu gingimarayen kwamfutoci ne, wato Massive Gigabyte-Servers, masu tafkeken mizani, wajen shigar da shafukan yanar sadarwar da take ganin haramun ne mutanenta su shiga.  Da zarar ta shigar da wadannan adireshi, sai ta sanya wa wadannan kwamfutoci masarrafar tacewa, ta kuma jona su da babban layin Intanet da ya shigo kasar daga sauran kasashen duniya, wato Internet Backborn.  Muddin a kasar kake, da zarar ka nemo wani shafi ko gidan yanar sadarwa, wadancan kwamfutocin ne zasu cafke adireshin, sai sun duba, idan bai dace da wanda ke cikinsu ba, sannan su sake shi, har ya isar da kai gidan yanar sadarwar.  Wannan tsari shi ake kira “Proxy Farm”.  Kuma dashi ne Hukumar kasar Saudiyya ke amfani a halin yanzu.  A kasashe irinsu Masar da Koriya ta Kudu da Singafo kuma, gwamnati na amfani ne da Mashakatar Lilo da tsallake-tsallake, wato Internet Cafes, wajen tace ire-iren gidajen yanar sadarwar da masu ziyara ke ziyara.  Idan kaje mashakatar lilo da tsallake-tsallake, da zarar ka nufaci gidan yanar sadarwar da gwamnati ta hana mu’amala dashi, shafi zai budo inda ake bukatar ka shigar da lambarka na kasa, wato Identity Number (mai dauke da dukkan bayanan da suka shafeka a matsayinka na dan kasar), ko kuma kwafi din fasfo dinka, idan bako ne kai matafiyi, sannan a bude maka hanya ka shiga.  Suna haka ne don sanin wa da wa suka shiga shafi kaza, kuma me-da-me suka yi a shafin? Idan bayan wasu lokuta aka samu matsala tsakanin gwmanati da masu gidan yanar, za a iya komawa baya, a duba tarihin wadanda suka shiga shafin.  Duk wanda sunansa ke ciki ana iya tuhumarsa kai tsaye.  Dankari!

 

Wasu Nau’ukan

Bayan nau’ukan takunkumi da bayaninsu ya gabata, akwai wasu nau’ukan da ba kowa ya sansu ba, saboda ba a fili ake yinsu ba; don galibi da wata manufa daban ake aiwatar da su.  Ire-iren wadannan nau’ukan takunkumi na wucin-gadi ne; ma’ana lokaci-lokaci ake amfani dasu don cinma wata buri.  Galibin masu leken asiri a Intanet, na kasashen Jamus da Rasha da Sin da Amurka da Burtaniya da Andalus, da Koriya ta Arewa duk suna amfani da wannan tsari a boye. Wannan tsari kuwa shi ne yin amfani da kwararru kan fasahar Intanet wadanda galibi ‘yan Dandatsa ne, don darkake wasu gidajen yanar sadarwa, da hana shigarsu gaba daya.  Ire-iren wadannan gidajen yanar sadarwa dai sun shafi wasu kamfanoni ne ko kungiyoyin addini ko kuma wasu kasashe masu amfani da tsarin siyasa da ta sha bamban da nasu.  Misali, an sha tuhumar kasar Sin da yin amfani da ‘yan Dandatsa wajen toshewa ko kuma darkake gidajen yanar sadarwar ‘Yan Awaren lardin Tibet masu neman ‘yan cin kai.  Har wa yau, kasar Masar tayi amfani da su wajen toshewa da kuma darkake gidan yanar sadarwa ta kungiyar Ikhwaanul Muslimoon (Muslim Brotherhood), wato kungiyar su Marigayi Hasan Al-Banna. Haka kasar Amurka da sauran kasashen Turai, duk suna amfani da ‘yan Dandatsa wajen aiwatar da wani abin da a zahiri sanya wa wannan fasaha takunkumi ne.  Wannan tsari shi ake kira “Cyber Espionage” a Turancin kwamfuta.  Sai dai abin bakin ciki, ko kadan ba a kawo wannan a matsayin laifi da take hakkin dan adam na fadin albarkacin baki.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al'umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: "Kimiyya da Kere-kere," wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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