Yadda Kasashe Ke Sanya Wa Fasahar Intanet Takunkumi (4)

Masu Baiwa Fasahar Intanet Kariya

Tsawon shekaru ashirin da fasahar Intanet ta dauka tana da habaka, tare da dasa tasirinta a fagen kayayyaki da hanyoyin sadarwa na zamani, bata tsira da duka da sukan da wasu kasashe ke mata kadai ba, sai da ta samu masoya wadanda suka sha alwashin bata kariya. Kamar yadda muka sani ne a al’adar rayuwa; kowa da kiwon da ya karbe shi – wai makwabcin mai akuya ya sayi kura.  Ba kuwa inda zaka ga wannan a aikace irin kasashen da suka ci gaba ta fannin tattalin arziki, musamman kasashen yamma.  In har ana samun masu tutiyar kare hakkin dabbobi (irinsu mage, da tumakai, da karnuka, kai hatta ciyayi akwai masu tutiyar nema musu ‘yanci), kenan don an samu masu baiwa fasahar Intanet kariya ba wani abin mamaki bane.

 

Daga cikin kungiyoyi masu baiwa fasahar Intanet kariya a duniya akwai kungiyar Reporters Without Border, wato kungiyar ‘yan jarida masu kishin yada labarai da bayanai da kuma bayar da kariya ga dukkan hanyoyin samunsa a duniya.  Wannan kungiya, cikin rahotanta na shekarar 2006 ta bayyana cewa akwai kasashe goma sha uku da ta kira da “Masu Adawa da Fasahar Intanet” a duniya, saboda irin tsarin da suke bi wajen sanya wa fasahar Intanet takunkumi.  Galibin wadannan kasashe, kamar yadda zamu gani nan kadan, tsoffin daulolin tsarin kwaminisanci ne, ko kuma kasashe masu tsarin mulkin sarauta.

 

“Kasashe Masu Adawa da Fasahar Intanet”

Kungiyar Reporters Without Border tace ta kira wadannan kasashe da “Masu Adawa da Fasahar Intanet” ne saboda kakkausan harshensu da zafafan bulalolin da suke amfani da su wajen dakushe kaifin wannan fasaha da abin da ta kunsa na amfani ga al’ummarsu da kuma duniya baki daya.  Bayan wadannan kasahe guda goma sha uku, akwai wasu kasashe kuma da ta kira “Masu Sassaucin Hali” wajen hanyoyin da su ma suke bi wajen wannan aiki na sanya takunkumi.  Hanyoyin da suke bi wajen yin hakan bai kai na farkon ba, amma duk da haka an bayyana su da cewa suna kawo wa wannan fasaha cikas wajen ci gaba da habaka.

 

Wadannan kasashe sha uku dai sune: kasar Bama, da kasar Kiyuba, da kasar Misra, da kasar Iran, da kasar Sin, da kasar Koriya ta Arewa, da kasar Saudiyya, da kasar Siriya, da kasar Tunisiya, da kasar Turkmenistan, da kasar Uzbekistan, da kasar Biyetnam, sai kuma kasar Maldibs.  Kungiyar Reporters Without Border ta kira wadannan kasashe da suna “Internet Blackholes”, saboda irin tsanantawar da hukumomi ke yi ga jama’a kan abin da ya shafi wannan fasaha ta Intanet.  Ire-iren wadannan matakai da hukumomi ke daukawa ya shafi hana kaiwa ko amfani da fasahar baki daya, kamar yadda bayanai suka gabata a baya, ko kuma kuntata yanayin mu’amalar, ta yadda zai zama kusan gwamma hakura da abin ma, da irin yanayin da ake amfani dashi.  A wasu lokuta kuma wadannan hukumomi kan sanya wa jama’a ido, inji wannan kungiya, cikin abin da suke yi.  Wannan kuwa yana tasiri wajen hana su sakewa, da kuma yin leke cikin dukkan abin da suke yi.  Hakan, a cewar Reporters Without Border, ba karamin laifi bane a doka.  Wannan kashin kaji da kungiyar Reporters Without Border ta shafa wa wadannan kasashe ba komai ya dada yi ba sai kara musu bakin jinni a idon duniya, a siyasance.  Saboda daman an dauki da dama daga cikinsu a matsayin gwamnatocin kama-karya ne; musamman gwamnatin Koriya ta Arewa, da Sin, da Kiyuba, da Iran, da kuma Bama.  To meye dalilansu na yin hakan?

 

Hujjojinsu

Ko shakka babu, kamar yadda mai karatu ya sha karantawa a kasidun baya, kowace kasa na da nata irin tsarin siyasa, da irin al’adunsu, da addininsu da kuma mahangarsu a rayuwa; wadanda ko kadan ba a hada su da tsarin siyasa ko al’adu ko addinin wasu kasashen.  Wadannan bambance-bambance ne suke tasiri wajen tsarin da kasashen ke amfani dashi na sanya kariya ga fasahar baki daya.  Misali, kasar Sin kasa ce mai asali da tarbiyya irin ta tsarin kwaminisanci ko gurguzu; wanda kuma a irin wannan muhalli, ana ma gwamnati biyayya ne ta kololuwa.  Duk abin da hukuma tace, shikenan, kai baka da bakin Magana.  Sannan kuma irin al’adunsu ya sha bamban da na sauran kasashen turai, wato kasashen da ire-iren wadannan kungiyoyi suka fito kenan.  A al’adunsu babban laifi ne kallon tsiraici, amma a sauran kasashen turai ba dukkansu suka dauki wannan a matsayin wani laifi ko abin kunya ba.

 

Ta bangaren siyasa kuma, daman kowa ya san akwai adawa mai daci a tsakanin tsarin mulkin gurguzu da ‘yan jari-hujja.  Wannan shi ne abin da ke tasiri har yanzu.  Kasashen da ke da asali daga tsarin gurguzu sun fi tsauri wajen sanya takunkumi ga fasahar Intanet, saboda tsarin tunaninsu ya sha bamban da na sauran kasashen turai.  Sun yarda da fadin albarkacin baki, amma ba irin wanda ake yake gudana a sauran kasashen turai ba, inda kowa zai fadi abin da ya ga dama ga gwamnati ko shugaban kasa, kuma ya kwana lafiya.  A sauran kasashen Asiya misali, da wahala haka ta kasance.  Wannan tasa kwanakin baya kasar Tailand ta rufe gidan yanar sadarwar bidiyo na kamfanin Google, mai suna Youtube, saboda wani majigin bidiyo da wasu suka sanya a gidan yanar, mai nuna batanci ga Sarkin gargajiyar kasar.  Ire-iren wadannan al’amura sun sha faruwa a sauran kasashen Asiya irinsu Koriya ta Arewa, da Biyetnan, da Bama, da dai sauransu.

 

Idan muka koma kan kasashe irinsu Saudiyya kuma, duk da cewa ba a cika jin muryarta a siyasar duniya ba, zamu ga kusan tsarin iri daya ne.  A kasar Saudiyya haramun ne zuba bayanai marasa dalili marasa karfi, kuma masu nuna batanci ga Sarki, ko wani jami’in gwamnatin kasar.  Duk wanda aka kama da wannan laifi ya shiga uku.  Haka kuma haramun ne yada bayanai marasa dalilai ko masu tozartarwa ga sauran jami’an kasashen da ke da alakar diflomasiyya da kasar.  Haramun ne zuba hotuna da dukkan abin da ke nuna tsaraici ko tsantsar batsa a kowane shafin yanar sadarwa ne.  Yadda yake haramun ne a zuba, haka kuma yake haramun ne a kalla.  Duk wanda aka kama shi da wannan laifi zai hadu da fushin hukuma.  Haramun ne har wa yau zubawa ko shiga shafukan yanar sadarwa masu dauke da bayanan cin mutunci ga kowane mutum ne da ke kasar; musulmi ne shi ko wanda ba musulmi ba.  Abu na karshe da gwamnati ta haramta kan abin da ya shafi mu’amala da Intanet shi ne shiga gidajen yanar sadarwar wasu kasashe irinsu Isra’ila, ko kuma kungiyoyin wasu addinai masu juya akidun mutane zuwa addininsu.

 

To watakila kace ta yaya gwamnati take ganewa idan an keta hurumin wadannan dokoki da ta gindaya?  Wannan tambaya ce mai kyau.  Hakika kasar Saudiyya ta yi kokarinta wajen ganin ta samar da kwararru ‘yan kasa, wadanda suka kware sosai kan wannan fasaha ta Intanet da kwamfuta, don ciyar da kasar gaba ta wannan hanya, da kuma sanya kariya ga tunani da akidun jama’ar kasar, kamar yadda bayanai suka gabata.  Wannan tasa hukuma ta tanadi wata cibiya mai dauke da gingimarayen kwamfutoci masu shiga tsakanin duk mai mu’amala da fasahar Intanet a kasar, da kuma kwamfutar da ke dauke da shafin da yake nema.  Wadannan kwamfutoci suna dauke ne da manhajar tace shafuka da gidajen yanar sadarwa, wato Censoring Software.  Wannan manhaja da hukumar Saudiyya ke amfani da ita wajen wannan aiki kuwa ita ce manhajar SmartFilter na kamfanin Secure Computing, wadda ita ce shahararriyar manhajar da galibin kasashe a Turai da Gabas-ta-tsakiya ke amfani wajen tacewa da kuma sanya kariya ga wannan fasaha.  Hukumar Saudiyya ta ajiye wadannan kwamfutoci da ake kira Proxy Farm ne a Birnin Kimiyya da Fasaha ta Sarki Abdul-Azeez, wato King Abdul-Azeez City for Science and Technology. Kuma manufarta na sanya wannan kariya shi ne don kare wa jama’a tunani da kuma akidunsu na addini daga gurbata.  Duk da cewa tasirin hakan kadan ne, idan muka gwada da irin waskiyar da ake wa wadannan kwamfutoci, kamar yadda muka sanar makonni biyu da suka gabata.

 

Idan kuma muka doshi kasar Misra zamu samu bambancin manufa tsakaninta da kasar Saudiyya.  A yayin da galibin manufar hukumar Saudiyya shi ne kare addini da tunani da mutuncin jama’ar kasar da kuma na baki, a kasar Misra abin ya dan sha bamban.  Dalilan siyasa ne suka fi tasiri a kasar.  Haka ma kasar Tunisiya da kasar Siriya da Iran.  Wannan kuwa bazai rasa nasaba da irin asalin tsarin mulki da tarbiyyar da suka sama daga wasu kasashen ba.  A Misra an sha kamawa da kuma daure masu rubutu suna fadin ra’ayoyinsu na siyasa a Mudawwanai (Blogs).  Haka ma abin yake a kasar Iran.  Wannan tasa lokacin zaben kasar Iran da aka yi kwanakin baya, galibin shafukan Intanet an toshe su, musamman lokacin da aka fara zanga-zanga.  Sai sakonnin tes aka ta aikawa don sanar da hakikanin abubuwan da ke faruwa a can.  A ire-iren wadannan kasashe, gwamnatoci basu sassauci kan abin da ya shafi ra’ayoyin abokan adawa ta fuskar siyasa.  Wannan shi ne babban dalilinsu na sanya kariya ta yadda suke so, don cinma manufarsu.

 

“Masu Sassaucin Ra’ayi”

Kasashe masu “sassaucin ra’ayi” kuma sun hada da manyan daulolin duniya da ke yamma, irinsu kasar Amurka, da kasar Burtaniya, da kasar Isra’ila, da kasar Rasha, da kasar Turkiyya, da kasar Tailand, sai kuma kasar Yemen.  Akwai sassauci a wadannan kasashe idan aka kwatanta su da wadanda suka gabace su. Matsalar kasar Rasha na siyasa ne, ko shakka babu.  Tsarinta daya ne da kasashen da ke bin ra’ayoyinta na siyasa, irinsu kasar Sin da Koriya ta Arewa da Bama da Iran da sauransu.  Sai dai tsananin da ke kasarta bai kai nasu ba; watakila saboda irin ci gabanta ne a fannin tattalin arziki da siyasa.  Ita ce kasar da ta fi kowace kasa yawan kwararru a fannin gina manhajar kwamfuta (Computer Programmers) a duniya.  Haka kuma, galibin ‘yan Dandatsa masu ta’addanci a Intanet ta hanyar kwamfuta, duk ‘yan kasarta ne.  Saboda bambancin ra’ayin siyasa, hukuma kan yi amfani dasu don cinma wasu burace-burace a duniya; kamar dai yadda ake zargin kasar Sin da yin amfani da ‘yan Dandatsar kasarta wajen haka.  Kasar Amurka da Burtaniya da Isra’ila ma na da ra’ayi ko manufa makamancin wannan.  Wani abin sha’awa da mai karatu zai so ji ma shi ne, tsarin leken asiri ta hanyar fasahar Intanet (Cyber Expionage) yafi shahara a tsakanin wadannan kasashe.  Kasar Tailand manufofinta daya ne da irin na kasar Sin, amma tana da sassauci wasu lokuta kan abin da ya shafi sanya takunkumi.  A kasar Yemen kuma, galibin kariyar da hukuma ke sanyawa kan gidajen yanar sadarwar caca ne (Gambling Sites), da gidajen yanar sadarwar batsa (Porn Sites), sai kuma gidajen yanar sadarwar wasu kungiyoyin addinai masu neman karkatar da jama’a zuwa addininsu, ta hanyar gurbata wa ‘yan kasar tunani da akidunsu na addini.  Wannan bazai hana a samu wasu ra’ayoyi ko manufofi na siyasa na daban ba, amma a cewar Reporters without Border, wadannan su ne manyan dalilai.

 

Kammalawa

Daga bayanan da suka gabata, a fili yake cewa babu wata kasa da ta tsira daga laifin sanya wa wannan fasaha takunkumi sanadiyyar wata manufa da take da ita, idan mun dauki hakan laifi ne.  Bayanan da muka kawo a sama da kuma dalilan da wadannan kasashe suka bayar ko aka hararo, basa nuna cewa abin da suka yi daidai ne ko kuskure ne kai tsaye.  Ya danganci yadda muka dauki abin; ta manhangar addini ko al’adu, ko siyasa.  A takaice dai, kowa da dalilansa, kuma a ko ina aka tsare shi zai iya kare wadannan dalilai da suka haddasa shi yin abin da ya yi.  Babban abin da zai sa a kasa daidantar ko kuskurar da abin da wata kasa tayi shi ne; har yanzu babu inda kasashen duniya suka zauna suka ce abu kaza batsa ne, misali, ko lafazi kaza kan siyasa haramun ne, ko suka yarda cewa da dokar addini kaza za a yi la’akari da dukkan laifukan da ake tuhumar mai laifi ya aikata su a Intanet.  In kuwa haka ne, to kenan ashe hanya mafi sauki  ita ce kowace kasa ta dubi abin da yafi mata – ba tare da zakewa ba – wajen kawo gyara ga al’umma.

 

A nan zamu dakata da wannan silsila haka.  Zuwa mako mai zuwa kuma muna nan dauke da bayanai kan wasu fannonin na ilmin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwa.  A ci gaba da kasancewa tare damu.

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al’umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: “Kimiyya da Kere-kere,” wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

Baban Sadik

Baban Sadik marubuci ne, kuma mai bincike a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwar zamani da tasirinsu ga al’umma a kasashen Afrika, musamman Najeriya. Ya tanadi wannan shafi ne don taskance dukkan kasidun da yake gabatarwa a shafinsa na jaridar AMINIYA mai take: “Kimiyya da Kere-kere,” wanda ya faro tun shekarar 2006; shekaru goma kenan a takaice. Bayan kasidun shafin jarida, wannan shafi har wa yau yana dauke da wasu kasidun da ya gabatar a tarurruka da aka gayyace shi, ko wasu hirarraki da gidan rediyon BBC Hausa yayi dashi a lokuta daban-daban. Baban Sadik na zaune ne a birnin tarayyar Najeriya, wato Abuja.

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